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7th Grade History

Chapter 16

Fort Sumter first shots of civil war fired here on April 12, 1861
Robert E. Lee General who commanded all southern troops
border states a slave state that touched states in which slavery was illegal
King Cotton cotton was called this because it was important to the world market
Anaconda Plan the northern strategy to divide and conquer the south
First Battle of Bull Run the first major battle of the war and the Confederates won
hygiene conditions and practices that promote health
rifle is a gun with a grooved barrel that causes a bullet to spin through the air most widely used: model 1861 springfield musket
minie ball is a bullet with a hollow base...it is a deadly bone shattering ball
ironclad warships covered with iron
How did the North name each battle? by the nearest creek or river
How did the South name each battle? by the nearest town
What was the nickname of the Confederate Soldiers? Johnny Reb
Who was the Union Army's first general at Bull Run? Irwin McDowell
What was the date of the Battle of Bull Run? July 21, 1861
Ulysses S. Grant victorious Union General in the west nickname: "Unconditional Surrender"
Battle of Shiloh Union Victory in TN. Grant gets reinforcements and forces the Confederates to retreat
cavalry soldiers on horseback
Seven Day's Battle battle between June 25 and July 1. Lee and Jackson defeat the Union under McClellan
Battle of Antietam Battle fought in Maryland...was the single bloodiest day battle in the war (25,000 men)
At the start of the war, what were the strengths for the Union? 1. twice the population 2. 85% of factories - twice the amount of Railroads 3. sizable army - secure banks 4. strong president
At the start of the war, what were the weaknesses for the Union? long supply lines for army fighting in south
At the start of the war, what were the strengths for the Confederacy? 1. good generals 2. defensive war - defending home 3. knew the land well - fighting on own land 4. good outdoor living skills
At the start of the war, what were the weaknesses for the Confederacy? 1. half the population 2. lack of railroads & navy 3. fighting on own land
what was the strategy for the south? 1. wage defensive war - wear out the enemy 2. get help from foreign countries 3. capture capitol of Washington D.C.
what was the strategy for the North? 1. Control Mississippi River 2. blockade southern parts 3. seize control of Richmond, VA the southern capitol
Fort Sumter * April 12, 1861 * location - Charleston, SC * Confederates won * 1st shot of Civil War * Major Anderson- (U)/Gen Beauregard (C)
1st Battle of Bull Run * July 21, 1861 * location - Manassas, VA * Conferates won * 1st major land battle and R.R. used to bring troops * McDowell(U);Beauregard, Johnston, Jackson(C)
Battle of the Iron Clads * March 9, 1862 * location - Hampton Roads, VA * battle was a draw * wooden ships became a thing of the past
Fort Henry and Fort Donalson * February 1862 * Ft Henry-Tennessee River/Ft Donelson-Cumberland River * Union victory * opens up a river "highway" into the heart of the south * Grant (U)
Shiloh * April 6-7, 1862 * location - Pittsburg Landing, TN * Union victory * One of the wars bloodiest battles * Grant (U) / Johnston & Beauregard (C)
New Orleans * April 25, 1862 * New Orleans * Union victory * Union controls the most important city in the west * Admiral David Farragut (U)
Seven Days Battle * June 25-July 1, 1862 * Richmond, VA * Confederate victory * Lee and Jackson force McClellan to retreat again…fired and Lee takes over for south * McClellan (U) / Johnston & Lee (C)
2nd Bull Run * August 29-30, 1862 * Manassas, VA * confederate victory * Union fails to advance to Richmond so Pope is now out and McClellan is in command for a second time
Antietam * September 17, 1862 * Sharpsburg, MD * Draw * Single bloodiest day of the war/ McClellan fired for 2nd time * McClellan (U) / Lee (C)
why did people volunteer for the army? 1. escape boredom of farm or factory 2. join friends or neighbors 3. seek adventure, glory 4. get recruitment money 5. show loyalty to country, state, area
what was the organization of the army from smallest to largest? company - 100 men regiment - 10,000 when full strength brigades - 3,000 when full strength division - 9,000 when full strength corps - 27,000 when full strength
what was the biggest killer of soldiers in the civil war? disease
what color were the uniforms for the North? blue
what color were the uniforms for the south? grey or yellowish brown
what is the most popular sidearm? colt army model 1860
why does Lee invade the north without permission of President Davis? 1. Hoped a victory in the north might force Lincoln into peace talks 2. Invasion would give Virginia farmers a rest from war to harvest crops 3. Convince France and Great Britain the south could win
Created by: HOMSSeminar