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Unit 12: Services

Ap Human Geography MC #1

TermDefinition
Basic Industries industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Business Services services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
Central Business district the area of the city where retail and office activities
Central place a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
Central Place theory A theory about the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart and will provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel
City state a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate Hinterland
Clustered rural settlement a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
Consumer services businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services
Dispersed rural settlement a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
Economic base
Basic Industries industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Business Services services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
Central Business district the area of the city where retail and office activities
Central place a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
Central Place theory A theory about the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart and will provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel
City state a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate Hinterland
Clustered rural settlement a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
Consumer services businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services
Dispersed rural settlement a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
Economic base A community’s collection of basic industries.
Enclosure movement The process of consolidating small land-holdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Gravity model A model that holds that the potential use of service at a particular location is directly related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Market area (or Hinterland) The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.
Nonbasic industries Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
Personal services Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers.
Primate city The largest settlement in a country, if it is has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Primate city rule A pattern of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry
Producer services Services that primarily help people conduct business
Public services Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
Range of a service The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
Rank size rule A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlements
Retail services Services that provide goods for sale to consumers
Service Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
Settlement A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants
Transportation and information services Services that diffuse and distribute services
Threshold Minimum the number of people needed to support the service
Action space The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis
Concentric Zone Model A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations
Edge Cities cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized environment
Colonial cities City established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures.
European Cities Cities in Europe that developed during the Medieval Period and that retain many of the characteristics: extreme density of development (narrow buildings) & an ornate church that marks the city center & high walls surrounding the city center for defense
Feudal Cities cities that arose during the Middle Ages that represent a time of relative stagnation in urban growth:fostered a dependent relationship between wealthy landowners and peasants who worked their land, providing very little alternative economic opportunities
Forward Capitals a capital city placed in a remote or peripheral area for economic, strategic, or symbolic reasons
Gateway Cities cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas
Industrial Revolution period characterized by the rapid social and economic changes in manufacturing and agriculture that occurred in England during the late 18th century and rapidly diffused to other parts of the developed world
Islamic Cities cities in Muslim Countries that owe their structure to their religious beliefs, contain mosques at their center and walls guarding their perimeter/ many dead-end streets, which limit foot traffic in residential neighborhoods
Latin American Cities Cities in Latin America that owe much of their structure to colonialism, the rapid rise of industrialization, and continued rapid increases in population. Similar to other cities, they also demonstrate distinctive sectors
Medieval Cities Cities in Europe that developed during the Medieval Period and that retain many of the characteristics: extreme density of development (narrow buildings) & an ornate church that marks the city center & high walls surrounding the city center for defense
Metropolitan Area Within the United states, an urban area consisting of one or more whole county units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that all act together as a coherent economic whole.
Multiple Nuclei Model Type of Urban form wherein cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of one central place
New Urbanism A movement in urban planning to promote mixed use commercial and residential development and pedestrian friendly, community centered cities of the mid twentieth century
Node Geographical centers of activity. A large city such as Los Angeles, as numerous nodes.
Sector Model A model or urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors
World Cities Centers economics, culture and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems financing and commerce
Created by: aphumangeo