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Lecture 50

Female Reproductive System

Menstrual Cycle 21-35 days,variable,28 days avg.some women regular,others irregular.ovum prepared for release from follicle.uterus prepared for implantation of embryo.
Ovarian Cycle ovum growth,release,follicular change.
Follicular Phase Days 1-14,dominated by FSH stimulation.several follicles enlarge and form follicle outgrows others,which regress in size (atresial).estrogen released from granulosa and thecal cells surrunding ovum.
Ovulation 14th day.high levels of estrogen stimulates kisspeptin release from the hypothal.kisspeptin stimulates gnrh release which stimulates the lh surge.lh surge from anterior pituitary ruptures antrum.
Ovulation cont. ovum released into released into abdomen,fimbria sweep ovum into oviduct.ovum surrounded by granulosa and thecal cells and zon pellucide (gel).ovum moves down oviduct into uterus-5 days in transit.
Luteal Phase days 14-28.corpus luteum forms from remaining cells in ruptured secretes progesterone and estrogen.progesterone prepares uterus for implantation.
Uterine Cycle site of fetal growth.changes will supply implanted embryo
Proliferate Phase days 5-14.variable part of cycle.estrogen of uterine surfaces after uterine lining thickness and blood supply.
Secretory Phase days 14-28.uterine lining greatly inc. vascularization and thickness.progesterone dominates-p dec uterine contractions.uterus secretes glycogen for embryo.
Menstruation days 1-5.sloughing off of uterine lining if no implantation
Cervix opening btw vagina and uterus.usually blocked w/ mucus-prevents infection.estrogen thins mucus and alkalizes secretions.lets sperm in,lessens acid killing of sperm.progesterone thickens mucus.
Indicators of Ovulation inc basal body temp. by inc progesterone.thinning of cervical mucus.fertilization range - 3 days:2 days before ovulation (sperm lifetime) to 1 day after ovulation (fertilizable ovum).
Ovarian Hormones estrogen and progesterone have mult effects.
Estrogens formed from androgens testosterone and androstenedione from thecal cells. thecal and granulose cells produce estrogen.
Effects of Estrogens inc follicular development inhibits cilary motion in oviducts inc uterine muscle size-thins cervical mucus.kisspeptin release at ovulation-inc neural plasticity-inc sex drive.
Progesterone inc secretions and size of uterus- inc breast development. inc cervical mucus-inhibits lh release. dec uterine contractions during pregnancy- inc heat produciton
Relaxin hormone from ovaries and placenta.helps sperm penetrate ovum membrane. inc digestion of connective tissue.softens pelvis and cervix for delivery
Menopause ~400 cycles in females. 1/400 of 7 million oocytes develop per cycle.only one ovum released,the remainder undergo atresia.decline and loss of estrogen and progesterone when oocytes gone.
Osteoperosis dec estrogen linked to op.pth,vitamin d,ca2+ all normal.dec in bone density less effect when bones are thicker at menopause.weight bearing work and exercise thickens bone.
Cardiovascular Effects inc in cv diseases after menopause dec hdl,inc vascular reactivity w/ dec estrogen. inc in bp.
Hormone Replacement designed to help dec menopause symptoms such as hot flashes.recent links:slight inc in heart disease,stroke,breast caution,balance risk/balance.
Created by: danamarie9323



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