Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Lecture 50

Female Reproductive System

Menstrual Cycle 21-35 days,variable,28 days avg.some women regular,others irregular.ovum prepared for release from follicle.uterus prepared for implantation of embryo.
Ovarian Cycle ovum growth,release,follicular change.
Follicular Phase Days 1-14,dominated by FSH stimulation.several follicles enlarge and form antrum.one follicle outgrows others,which regress in size (atresial).estrogen released from granulosa and thecal cells surrunding ovum.
Ovulation 14th day.high levels of estrogen stimulates kisspeptin release from the hypothal.kisspeptin stimulates gnrh release which stimulates the lh surge.lh surge from anterior pituitary ruptures antrum.
Ovulation cont. ovum released into released into abdomen,fimbria sweep ovum into oviduct.ovum surrounded by granulosa and thecal cells and zon pellucide (gel).ovum moves down oviduct into uterus-5 days in transit.
Luteal Phase days 14-28.corpus luteum forms from remaining cells in ruptured follicle.cl secretes progesterone and estrogen.progesterone prepares uterus for implantation.
Uterine Cycle site of fetal growth.changes will supply implanted embryo
Proliferate Phase days 5-14.variable part of cycle.estrogen dominated.repair of uterine surfaces after menstruation.inc uterine lining thickness and blood supply.
Secretory Phase days 14-28.uterine lining greatly inc. vascularization and thickness.progesterone dominates-p dec uterine contractions.uterus secretes glycogen for embryo.
Menstruation days 1-5.sloughing off of uterine lining if no implantation
Cervix opening btw vagina and uterus.usually blocked w/ mucus-prevents infection.estrogen thins mucus and alkalizes secretions.lets sperm in,lessens acid killing of sperm.progesterone thickens mucus.
Indicators of Ovulation inc basal body temp. by inc progesterone.thinning of cervical mucus.fertilization range - 3 days:2 days before ovulation (sperm lifetime) to 1 day after ovulation (fertilizable ovum).
Ovarian Hormones estrogen and progesterone have mult effects.
Estrogens formed from androgens testosterone and androstenedione from thecal cells. thecal and granulose cells produce estrogen.
Effects of Estrogens inc follicular development inhibits fsh.inc cilary motion in oviducts inc uterine muscle size-thins cervical mucus.kisspeptin release at ovulation-inc neural plasticity-inc sex drive.
Progesterone inc secretions and size of uterus- inc breast development. inc cervical mucus-inhibits lh release. dec uterine contractions during pregnancy- inc heat produciton
Relaxin hormone from ovaries and placenta.helps sperm penetrate ovum membrane. inc digestion of connective tissue.softens pelvis and cervix for delivery
Menopause ~400 cycles in females. 1/400 of 7 million oocytes develop per cycle.only one ovum released,the remainder undergo atresia.decline and loss of estrogen and progesterone when oocytes gone.
Osteoperosis dec estrogen linked to op.pth,vitamin d,ca2+ all normal.dec in bone density less effect when bones are thicker at menopause.weight bearing work and exercise thickens bone.
Cardiovascular Effects inc in cv diseases after menopause dec hdl,inc vascular reactivity w/ dec estrogen. inc in bp.
Hormone Replacement designed to help dec menopause symptoms such as hot flashes.recent links:slight inc in heart disease,stroke,breast cancer.inc caution,balance risk/balance.
Created by: danamarie9323