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US History

Final exam review flashcards

TermDefinition
Hoovervilles what people called the shantytowns in American cities by 1930-a direct slap at the presidents policies
Lend-Lease Act a plan Roosevelt suggested that said the president would lend or lease arms and other supplies to "any country whose defense was vital to the United States": passed in March 1941
Internment Camps General Delos Emmons was forced to order Japanese Americans in these camps during WWII; justified as necessary for national security
The Marshall Plan Aided European recovery after WWII by loaning Europe $13 billion; proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall
Highway Act of 1956 Created 41,000 miles of expressways to connect major American cities
Vietnamization a plan to end America's involvement in Vietnam; called for the gradual withdrawal of US troops in order for the South Vietnamese to take on a more active combat role
Containment a policy that took measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries; began to guide the Truman administration's foreign policy
Domino theory In 1954, Eisenhower likened the countries on the brink of communism to a row of dominoes waiting to fall one after the other
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Adopted on August 7, granted Johnson broad military powers in Vietnam
McCarthyism attacks on suspected Communists in the early 1950s; referred to the unfair tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without providing evidence
Red Scare a time when the public grew fearful that the Communists were taking over
Freedom Rides A plan in the deep south that brought white civil right workers together with black civil rights workers in a journey to bus terminals
Sit-ins In 1942 in Chicago; African-American protesters sat down at segregated lunch counters and refused to leave until they were served
Bus boycotts Montgomery December 1,1955; Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white person and got arrested
Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka a 1954 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" education for black and white students was unconstitutional
SNCC-Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee April 1960, organized by Ella Baker,an organization formed in 1960 to coordinate sit-ins and other protests and to give young blacks a large role in the civil rights movement
SCLC-Southern Christian Leadership Conference 1957, an organization formed in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other leaders to work for civil rights through nonviolent means
Nation of Islam a religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion
Black Panthers a militant African-American political organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police brutality and to provide services in the ghetto
The New Frontier President John F. Kennedy's legislative program: included proposals to provide medical care for the elderly, to rebuild blighted urban areas, to aid education, to bolster the national defense, to increase international aid, and to expand the space program
The Great Society 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson's program to reduce poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in the United States
The Manhattan Project the U.S. program to develop an atomic bomb for use in World War II
Bay of Pigs Invasion April 17, 1961; Cuban exiles supported by US military landed on Bay of Pigs, Cuban troops and Soviet tanks met them: they were either killed or imprisoned, disaster left Kennedy embarrassed
Cuban missile crisis October 1962: Americans got photographs of Soviet missile bases in Cuba that could reach US in minutes, ended with Khrushchev removing missiles and an American pledge not to invade Cuba; Khrushchev and Kennedy were both criticized
The Berlin Airlift A 327-day operation in which U.S. and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948; West Berlin survived because of the airlift
Watergate Scandal An arising from the Nixon administration's attempt to cover up its involvement in the 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex; forced President Nixon to resign
Roe v. Wade The Supreme Court ruled that women do have the right to choose an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy
Reaganomics The economic policies of President Ronald Reagan, which were focused on budget cuts and the granting of large tax cuts in order to increase private investment; rested heavily upon supply-side economics
Vietnam France was involved in Vietnam before the US got involved; doves opposed, hawks encouraged the war
Plessy v. Ferguson An 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine
Korematsu v. United States The Supreme Court decided that the government's policy of evacuating Japanese Americans to camps was justified on the basis of "military necessity"
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka A 1954 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" education for black and white students was unconstitutional
Truman Doctrine A formal statement of intention for the US to aid any country threatened by communist aggression, announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947
Great Depression A period, lasting from 1929-1940, where the US economy was in severe decline and millions of Americans were unemployed; causes include tariffs and war debt policies, crisis in farm sector, availability of easy credit, and an unequal distribution of income
New Frontier President John F. Kennedy's legislative program, which included proposals to provide medical care for the elderly, to rebuild national defense, to increase international aid, and to expand the space program
The New Deal President Franklin Roosevelt's program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression, focusing on relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform
Gandhi 1932-led a protest against British policies in India; a leader who helped India throw off British rule without violence
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr Influenced by many people, including Gandhi, helped found the SCLC, fought for civil rights using nonviolence
18th Amendment Launched the era known as prohibition, prohibited manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages; repealed by 21st amendment
Fidel Castro Cuba’s leader during the Bay of Pigs invasion
Caesar Chavez Worked to organize a union for California's mostly Spanish-speaking farm workers, believed in nonviolence, efforts paid off when Huerta negotiated a contract
The Great Society President Lyndon B. Johnson's program to reduce poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in the United States
US Roadway Act Created 41000 miles of expressways to connect major American cities
Korean War A conflict between North Korea and South Korea lasting from 1950-1953, in which the United States, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans and China fought on the side of the North Koreans
Marshall Plan The program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after World War II
Zero Tolerance
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat for a white person on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama
Selma On the march from there to Montgomery protesters were beaten and gassed
Civilian Conservation Corps a part of the New Deal, an agency that put young unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion-control and flood-control projects
National Recovery Act part of the New Deal, provided money to states to create jobs chiefly in the construction of schools and other community buildings
Tennessee Valley Authority a part of the New Deal, a federal corporation established in 1933 to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods
Pearl Harbor Occurred on Sunday morning December 7,1941; Japanese destruction was high because kamikaze pilots hit the fuel storage tanks; Roosevelt described the attack as a "date which will live in infamy"
Truman and the Atomic Bomb saw it as the only way to avoid invasion of Japan; he didn't want to lose anymore American troops
Manhattan Project American development of an atomic bomb
Hitler dreamed of uniting all German-speaking people in a great German empire; rascist; wanted to get rid of all "inferior races"; established the Third Reich; Nazism
Cold War The state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the US and the Soviet Union after WWII; included the Trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, the Berlin Airlift, and McCarthyism; democracy v. communism
Women and WWII proved they could do jobs as good as men; paid less; higher employment rates in factories and industry; helped produce goods for overseas
Beats members of a literary group who rebelled against the materialistic society of the 1950s
Woodstock a free music festival that attracted more than 400,000 young people to a farm in upstate New York in August 1969
Reagan Believed in supply-side economics, he faced scandal with the Iran Contra-Affair, and he serves as president through most of the 1980s
Guerilla Warfare fighting in Vietnam; Vietcong used it
Sandra Day O'Connor Ronald Reagan appointed her; first woman to be appointed to the Supreme Court
Baby Boom the sharp increase in the U.S. birthrate following World War II
Economic Growth in the US in the 1950s Factors of this were consumer demand and the need for national defense
Joseph McCarthy associations included the search of communists in the US government, a "black list" of Hollywood actors, and increased censorship of reading materials
Nixon and the People's Republic of China First president to visit China; huge success with the American public
Haight/Ashbury a San Francisco district that became the "capital" oft the hippie counterculture during the 1960s
Created by: julia1998