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BC 351- Unit 3

shape of detergent molecule cone
shape of membrane lipid cylinder
when a lipid bilayer is torn it does not seal by forming a hemi micelle cap because membrane lipids are cylindrical
why do lipid bilayers form? lipids point inside to lower the energy
two membrane lipid backbones glycerol or sphingosine
where does one find sphingolipids? neuronal cells
are negatively charged membrane lipids found inside or outside of cells? inside
3 structural components of membrane lipids fatty acyl tails, backbone (sphingosine/glycerol), head group (may be charged)/phosphate
how are membrane lipids classified? 1) spingosine/glycerol 2) head group; charged/uncharged? 3) phosphate or no phosphate
3 classes of membrane lipids cholesterol, glycophospholipids, sphingolipids
2 negatively charged glycerophospholipid head groups inositol, serine
lipid rafts regions of more sphingolipids/cholesterol found on the outside of the membrane
rotational diffusion membrane lipid spins
translational diffusion membrane lipid moves around
transmembrane diffusion membrane lipid "flips"
phospholipid crucial in intracellular signaling is phosphatidylinositol
flippase outer to inner translocation
floppase inner to outer translocation
scramblase moves lipids toward equilibrium w/ the concentration gradient
Phosphatidylserine, normally found primarily only in the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, is found at high levels on outer side in apoptotic cells; why? the phospholipid translocators are inactivated
cholesterol is essential for lipid raft formation because sphingolipids have large head groups
the mass ratio of lipids to proteins in membranes varies widely in different membranes
3 classes of membrane proteins lipid anchored, peripheral, integral
which class of membrane proteins can be removed w/ salt or urea? peripheral membrane proteins
constitutive membrane protein always part of the membrane
amphitrophic membrane protein regulated (sometimes expressed, sometimes not)
The forces that hold a membrane protein in the lipid bilayer and those that lead to protein folding into their tertiary structure both involve the minimization of the interact of hydrophobic R groups w/ the aqueous environment
hydropathy plot of hydrophobic alpha helices one high region of hydrophobicity
hydropathy plot of amphipathic alpha helices stays about static b/c hydrophobic and hydrophilic
why does a hydrophobic alpha helix only span once? to minimize interactions w/ the lipid bilayer (must be hydrophobic on all sides)
advantage of using amphipathic alpha helices for channel polar inside, hydrophobic outside
how do mild detergents isolate membrane proteins? hydrophobic ends stick to it to maintain its shape
A bacterial small protein causes red blood cell lysis. It also make artificial liposomes very permeable; it is likely a B barrel protein that forms a pore
transporter vs channel channel= goes right through; transporter= binds the solute
Na/K atpase 3Na+ flow out; 2K+ flow in (against gradient)
If the plasma membrane becomes permeable to Na+ and K+, the Na+/K+ pump would continue to pump ions and to hydrolyze ATP, but only generate heat in the process.
Secondary Active Transport uses energy source indirectly
glucose transport into blood Na/glucose cotransporter; glut-2; na/k atpase
Warburg Effect upregulated lactate production; down regulated acetyl coA production
2 examples of normal cells undergoing warburg effect early embryogenesis (1st 3 cell divisions); astrocytes/neurons
neurons convert ___ to ___ glutamine to glutamate
astrocytes convert ___ to ____ glutamate to glutamine
3 main types of metabolic pathways anabolic, catabolic, amphibolic
three main "energy currency" molecules ATP, NADH, acetyl coA
why is ATP-> ADP + Pi so negative? pH of cells (neutral)
ΔG'° vs. ΔG ΔG depends on temperature and concentrations
when would a rxn with ΔG'° that is positive still proceed? high concentration of reactants
ΔE'°= E'° (electron acceptor) + E'° (electron donor)
E'° (electron acceptor) more positive
E'° (electron donator) more negative (think NADH or FADH-> NAD+ or FAD+)
For ATP hydrolysis, ATP ADP + Pi, what is the effect of changing the reaction conditions from standard chemical conditions to biochemical standard conditions on ΔG of the reaction? The ΔG of the reaction will be more negative at a given ADP/ATP ratio.
a ΔE ̊’ that is favorable (-ΔG ̊’) is positive
The structure of NAD+ does not include a flavin nucleotide
Glycolysis occurs in essentially all cells because it evolved in an ancestor common to nearly all cells present on earth today.
In the breakdown of what you had for breakfast, the stage that generated the most ATP is oxidative phosphorylation
The purpose of phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate by the enzyme hexokinase as the first step in glycolysis is to help keep glucose in the cytoplasm
The conversion of 1 mol of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to 2 mol of pyruvate by the glycolytic pathway results in a net formation of 2 mol of NADH and 4 mol of ATP
what happens to NADH in anaerobic tissues? it's used up to make lactate
The lipid bilayer of biological membranes is self sealing in an aqueous environment
Membrane lipids are classified first by backbone and second by head group.
Amphipathic α-helical structures can form a hydrophilic pore within a lipid bilayer
A hydropathy plot indicates a stretch of amino acids forming a single-pass transmembrane domain
Sodium (Na+) transport across a membrane uses ~30% of the ATP hydrolyzed in mammalian cells
Aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg Effect can be visualized through PET scans
NAD+ carries only one hydride anion (1 H+ and 2 e-s)
metabolism consists of metabolic pathways that are linear, cyclic and spiral
Anabolic and catabolic pathways are related by anabolic pathways synthesizing more complex organic molecules using the energy derived from catabolic pathways
Energy requiring metabolic pathways that yield complex molecules from simpler precursors are anabolic
Life is thermodynamically possible because living cells release heat to the environment
If you mixed succinate, fumarate, FAD, and FADH2 together, all at l M concentrations and in the presence of succinate dehydrogenase, which of the following would happen initially? Fumarate would become reduced, FADH2 would become oxidized.
The most important reaction involved in the reoxidation of NADH is: pyruvate → lactate
The anaerobic conversion of 1 mol of glucose to 2 mol of lactate by fermentation is accompanied by a net gain of 2 mol of ATP (2 used up; NADH converted back to NAD+)
what is true of sphingolipids? cerebrosides and ganliosides are sphingolipids
how to draw hydropathy plot N->C; peaks at transmembrane regions; +/- on y axis
which types of transmembrane proteins are energy dependent all (facilitated diffusion, simple diffusion, active transport)
which types of transmembrane proteins can be saturated by substrate facilitated diffusion
which types of transmembrane proteins can establish a concentration gradient active transport only
Warburg and glutamate dependent on it (more so than other cells)
aerobic re-generation of NAD+ in electron transport chain!
Created by: melaniebeale
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