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Histology 1


What is a terminal web? a network of actin filaments at the apical surface of epithelial cells w/ microvilli (at the base of microvilli)
Where are sterocilia found? epididymis, proximal ductus deferens, and sensory (hair) cells of the ear
What is the basal lamina made of? 50% is type IV Collagen; laminin, proteoglycans and glycoproteins
What are the two types of glands? Exocrine and Endocrine
What is the difference between the two types of glands? Excorine glands have ducts and secrete products directly onto target. Endocrine glands are ductless and secrete products (hormones) into the bloodstream via Connective Tissue
What embryonic germ layer is the epidermis derived from? surface ectoderm
What type of epithelium does the endoderm give rise to? respiratory; GI tract; liver; pancreas; tympanic cavity; pharynx
What type of epithelium does mesoderm give rise to? kidney & gonads; pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities; lining of vascular and lymphatic vessels
What is the difference between serous and mucous glands?
What is the function of troponin? troponin regulates tropomyosin attchment to actin's myosin binding site. In response to Ca2+, troponin changes conformation causing the tropomyosin to dislocate from the actin binding site allowing for myosin to bind and contraction to occur.
What are the steps of muscle contraction? Action potential moves on axon --> acetylcholine released from presynaptic membrane to synaptic cleft --> postsynaptic membrane depolarized --> Na+ channels open--> action potential in sarcolema --> Ca2+ released --> Ca2+ released from sarcoplasmic reticu
What is Preder-Willi Syndrome? overproduction of ghrelin hormone --> causes eating and morbid obesity
What are the functions of adipose tissue? insulation, cushion, secretion of hormones, energy reserve
What are appetite stimulating hormones? Ghrelin
What are appetite suppressant hormones? leptin, peptide YY
What organ do appetite suppressing and stimulating hormones act on? hypothalamus
What fat-soluble dye can you stain adipose cells w/? Oil Red O
what is an isogenous group? a group of up to 8 condrocytes resulting from the division of a single condrocyte
what is the territorial matrix? in hyaline cartilage, it is the region that surrounds isogenous groups (i.e. newly formed chondrocytes) and is high in sulfated proteoglycans (negative & basophilic)
what are the two growth modes for cartilage and the difference between them? interstitial growth: division of chondrocytes w/in cartilage appositional growth: addition of chondrocytes from the perichondrium (addition of new cartilage on surface of old)
what is the perichondrium? dense Connective Tissue surrounding hyaline and elastic cartilage, except on articular surfaces
What is the articular surface of the epiphysis covered w/? hyaline cartilage
Osteopetrosis osteoclasts lack ruffled borders and bone resorption is defective
what is the periosteum fibrous connective tissue capsule that covers the outside surface of bone
what are the different types of muscle cells and characteristics of each?
Bone matrix contains mainly what type of collagen? Type I
what is a papilloma? benign surface epithelial tumor
what is an adenoma? benign glandular epithelial tumor
what do osteoblasts secrete? type I collagen and bone matrix proteins
What cells are responsible for maintaining the bone matrix? osteocytes
each osteocyte occupies a space called what? lacuna
what is the Howship's lacuna? a shallow bay where osteoclasts are located
what are osteoclasts derived from? hemopoietic cells (monocytes)
what is osteomalacia? impared mineralization/calcification of bone matrix due to calcium/vitamin D deficiency (rickets in children)
what is the role of calcitonin? lower elevated blood Ca2+ levels by inhibiting bone resorption via inhibiting effects PTH on osteoclasts
what is the role of PTH? rsises blood Ca2+ levels by stimulating osteoclast activity
Created by: pinarpolat



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