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Planning Terms

Liveable comms, nodes, gateways, etc.

QuestionAnswer
vernacular architecture vernacular architecture uses only building materials that are local to the area.
context sensitive design Describes roadways that incorporate the following components: flexibility, community values, balance between economic, social, and environmental concerns.
activity nodes incorporate mixed land use, pedestrian accessibility, buildings oriented along streets and public spaces, and accessibility to transit nodes.
Gridiron A type of street layout utilizing a rectangular arrangement, and was a common component in the first North American cities. Gridiron pattern, which characterizes many North American cities, stemmed from the simple process of dividing up land into squares
scale measuring the relative heights of buildings and employing the concept of "massing", which refers to the volume of buildings and open spaces.
scale (cont.) When determining building height and massing, should consider: impact on pedestrian movement and view; street width; community identity; context; framing; economic feasibility; environmental impact
net density net density = applies only to structures, which also includes any private land or secondary structures related to the primary structure. Often measured using FAR.
gross density Includes both structures and infrastructure, such as streets and roads. In most cases, higher density development is preferable to lower density development. Density is assessed at 3 levels: regional level, community level, neighborhood level.
sidewalk design sidewalks should be at least 5 feet wide so people can walk side-by-side. Buffer zone should = 1 or 2 feet. Sidewalks in comm zones = future zones, w/ minimum of 4 feet including trees, hydrants, etc. Residential areas = "planted strips" of 6 feet wide.
crosswalk design Allow for pedestrians crossing at 4 feet per second. Neckdowns (bulb-outs). Crosswalks in comm areas should be min 12 feet.
route connectivity Enables peds to walk the shortest possible distance to reach their destinations. Peds are normally unwilling to take detours more than 200 ft to cross a street - blocks should not exceed 300 ft. Block > 400 ft long should include mid-block crossing pts
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Holds that characteristics of urban design can reduce the # of crimes, and the fear of crime, while increasing the level of business activity. Implemented through 3 basic methods: 1) design; 2) electronic; 3) organizational
CPTED Design Includes building layout, site planning, signage placement, street light placement, and placement of trees and other greenery
CPTED Electronic locks, alarms, security devices, TV monitoring, and various target-hardening techniques
CPTED Organizational doormen, police, business block watches, security guards, and other displays of manpower and occupancy.
Other CPTED Concepts:
Defensible Space Created by a set of barriers, real or imaginary, that control entry into a space, and aid surveillance by residents.
Natural Access Control Limits the amount of access points into a space, and discourages access into non-public areas by suing streets, sidewalks, gateways, and other features to demarcate the areas between public and non-public routes.
Natural Surveillance Provided by design features that maximize visibility, such as building entrances that look out onto streets.
Territorial Reinforcement Defines property lines using various features, including fences, gateways, and pavement designs.
Management and Maintenance The process and techniques that keep buildings in good condition and in compliance with local standards.
Legitimate Activity Support Incorporates lighting, building design, and natural surveillance in order to discourage activities for which the structure was not intended.
"Edge Cities" Large suburban communities - large size suburbs operate as a "city" due to mixture of land use and magnitude.
Created by: jlongabaugh