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Transportation

QuestionAnswer
Modal Split mode = certain means of transportation (car, bike, train, etc). Modal split = % of commuting trips for each mode.
paratransit systems Designed to be used by people who cannot drive or use conventional public transportation (elderly, disabled, etc).
transportation system evaluation Measures the transportation system's performance, implementation and impact. Assess financing status and institutional arrangement.
local transportation plans Contain the transit plan as well as elements related to circulation and transportation
regional/metropolitan plans Contain the metropolitan transportation plans, transportation improvement program (TIP), congestion management system, corridor study, sub-area study, major investment study, highway/transit/aviation planning.
state plans Contain the state transportation plan and the state transportation improvement program (TIP)
traffic analysis zone The standard unit of measurement on travel demand models and travel forecasts. It covers a geographic area where land use is similar throughout, and is normally the size of a census tract.
travel forecasting Predicts the volume of trips between sub-areas and the modal split of those trips, often using traffic analysis zones. Forecasts are based on local general plans, which contain population and employment forecasts; and comprehensive plans (existing cond)
Travel Demand Model Used prominently by planners and MPOs. Travel demand models predict a community's transportation needs in a 4 step process: 1) trip generation; 2) trip distribution (across zones); 3) modal split; 4) trip assignment (pathway - street, public transit line)
Intelligent Transportation System aka ITS - increases the safety, efficiency, capacity, and coordination of traffic systems by implementing computer sensing and info gathering technologies, such as automated toll collection, coordinated signaling systems, and changeable freeway signs.
conflict points Areas along streets where vehicle/vehicle conflicts or vehicle/pedestrian conflicts are more likely to occur.
cartway The right of way along a street
Level of Service (LOS) Rates current conditions w/in a particular traffic stream using a qualitative alphabetical scale. Includes speed/travel time, traffic interruptions, safety and comfort/convenience.
volume to capacity ratio (v/c) Factors heavily into LOS. V/C is calculated by dividing the number of vehicles passing through a specific traffic facility (intersection, road, etc) by the number of vehicles the facility is designed to handle.
traffic calming measures vertical deflection - raised intersection and speed bumps; horizontal shift - includes traffic circles, chicanes, and S-shaped roadways; roadway narrowing + traffic islands (more collisions btw cars and bikes though); road closures
parking ratio # of parking spaces per unit of land reserved for parking use. limited parking = reduced traffic
Federal Transportation Programs
National Interstate and Highway Defense Act 1956. Eisenhower. Required that all federal highways abide by certain uniform design standards. The act established the "highway trust fund", which finances highway construction through new vehicle taxes and gasoline tax. Cause of urban sprawl
Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 1964. Provides federal funding to local governments for the creation of public transit systems. It finances 80% of the capital investment for local transit systems and 50% of the operating expenditures for local transit systems.
Energy Policy Conservation Act of 1975 1975. Created "corporate average fuel economy" (CAFE) standards, which established a 27.5 mpg requirement for cars and a 20.7 mpg requirement for light trucks.
Americans w/ Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990. Imposed 2 requirements on transportation: 1) mass transit system must be accessible to people with disabilities; 2) paratransit services must be provided to people who are incapable of driving or using public transit.
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century TEA-21. 1998. The successor of ISTEA, served to continue and improve many ISTEA programs like road/transit planning, flex allocation funds for trans improvement. TEA-21 sought to improve safety, efficiency, and flexibility and promote economic growth
TEA-21 (cont.) It also promotes the construction of transit systems over the expansion of highway development, and grants federal funding for the preservation of historical landmarks and natural scenery as well as the creation of pedestrian and bike pathways.
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) 1991. Provided better coordination btw transportation and land use planning. 3 basic requirements: stakeholders must participate in planning process; 2) DOTs and MPOs must collaborate on funding; 3) state and metro areas must collaborate on AQ standard
ISTEA (cont.) also established "transportation enhancements program" which earmarked federal funds for public transit, alt transit modes, ped walkways, scenic byways, etc. Focused on community-at-large
concurrency Occurs when a state coordinates transportation and infrastructure planning with other types of planning (growth, education, etc). Some states have concurrency laws.
conformity A requirement in which metropolitan areas must be able to show that their plans conform to federal air quality standards.
spatial mismatch hypothesis Describes the disparity btw the location of people's residences and the location of available employment. Eg. a low-income worker lives in the city and is seeking a service job. He may lack the transportation necessary to reach the service jobs in suburbs
principle/major arterial Run continuously within and between urban areas. These streets are designed to handle fast-moving, high-volume traffic over long distances, and include interstate highways, freeways, and expressways.
minor arterials Run continuously through urban areas and connect with both arterial roads and collectors. Minor arterials are the most important components of a metropolitan street system and include state, county, and city streets.
minor arterials They are designed for shorter commutes than major arterials, and are used for most trips within a city. The majority of city's industrial and commercial activities occur along minor arterials.
collector streets two-lane roads that cover short distances, normally btw 1/4 and 1/2 mile, and are designed to handle slower moving traffic. Their primary purpose is transferring traffic btw smaller streets and the arterial system. Both residential and business property
local streets Convey traffic btw residences and comm businesses btw 20-30 mph, may include city streets. Local streets = 90% of all street mileage in US, they are the least-traveled category. Often shorter than other types of roads and require frequent stopping.
Transportation Acts
Federal Highway Act of 1916 and 1921 1916 - Required Department of Transportation. 1921 - Both years gave federal government "review/approve" role when federal funds were involved.
Federal Highway Act of 1934 States may use up to 1.5% of federal funds for planning (highway funds)
CATS 1955 1st to use 4-step travel demand model
Federal Highway Act of 1956 Largest public works project. Eisenhower administration. Extended planned road system 41,000 miles. Established uniform designs for federal highways. HWY trust fund. Interstate System of Defense Highways.
Federal Highway Act of 1962 States required to use 1.5% of federal funds for highways for planning in urbanized areas over 50,000 people. 3-C: comprehensive, coordinated, continuing.
Federal Highway Act of 1973 New concern for environmental and social issues. 1972 = BART. Established MPOs, TIPs and TSM. TSM = HOV lanes, park n ride, metered lights, changeable signs, speed/messages
Energy Policy Act of 1975 Result of Arab Oil Embargo. CAFE standards - 27.5 for cars, 20.7 for light trucks.
ADA 1990 Required mass transit to be accessible for disabled. Required paratransit be available for those who can't drive or take transit (i.e. carpool/vanpool), shuttles, bus/taxi
ISTEA 1991 Req MPOs and DOTs to create series 3 year TIPs. TIPS est priorities and funding sources. Req greater coord w/ stakeholders/elected officials. MPOs and DOTs to create long-range plans. CM (congestion mngmt). Created Surface Trans Plan Program
TIPs transportation incentive program
ISTEA acronym Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
TEA-21 1998. Continue ISTEA, TIPs to be regional. Scenic/historic preservation. Emphasized transit. Streamlined studies for env doc prep. Continued CMAQ program. TCSP - linked trans infrastructure and LU. "Access + Jobs" program. 54% decrease in spending for HWs
SAFETEA-LU 2005. Largest surface transportation allocation to date. Highway Safety Improvement Program - repair and maintenance are heavy costs. Encourage public-private partnerships. Opened federally-funded HWYs to "road pricing" (tolls). Corridor planning
Urban Mass Transportation Act 1964. Public transit focused. Government pays 80% of capital costs and 50% of operating costs for local transit projects.
Clean Air Act Amendments 1990s. Restricted transportation funding to non-attainment areas, encouraged CMAQ programs and projects (HOV lanes, carpool, transit, etc) $6 billion for congestion management programs.
Amtrak 1971
MAP-21 FHA. "Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century". Obama. July 6, 2012. First long-term HW authorization action taken since 2005. Surface transportation projects. Streamlined, performance-based, multimodal program. Improve safety, function, etc.
Created by: jlongabaugh