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reading/language/lit

cset multiple subject subset 1 (part 1)

QuestionAnswer
homophones same sound, different meaning
syntax rules for organizing words into sentences
pragmatics rules for conversation
telegraphic speech minimal words to get meaning across
infant-directed speech motherese/parentese: baby talk, adult modified speech for children to better understand
strategies for childrn's natural ability to speak recasting/rephrasing, expanding, labeling, echoing
i versus me use I when pronoun is the subject of a verb, use me when pronoun is the subject of a preposition
diction word usage
personification giving human qualities to nonhuman
irony conveys a meaning opposite from words actually used
protagonist versus antagonist hero versus villan
climax highest point of interest
denounement resolution of conflict
ballad narrative poem that tells a story and was written to be sung
free verse technique of poetry, no rhyme and does not have a regular rhetorical pattern
prose no break in continuity of print
sonnet 14 lines, iambic pentameter, formal arrangement. iambic pentameter: line of five iams; iams= one unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable
omniscent point of view telling a story that allows author to enter the minds of other characters and tell the story from multiple vantage points
foreshadowing clue to suggest events that have not yet occured
emergent reader early childhood; pre-k; begin awareness of text left to right, scribble,. instruction: help recognize print in environment, letter shaped, pretends to read
beginning reader k-3rd; letters associated with sound, simply cvs words; rhyme/blend words; instruction: phonics, text comprehension, listening and writing
fluent reader 4-8th grade: reads larger unit of print, use analogy to decode words, decoding becomes fluent; instruction: decoding, fluency, text comprehension, utilize metacognition
remedial reader shows no competency, assess weakness, reteach modalities as taught to beginning reader
phoneme smallest part of spoken language
grapheme smallest part of written language
phonics relationship between phoneme and grapheme. systematic/explicit instruction
phonemic awareness ability to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes
phonological awareness includes phonemic awareness, rhymes, syllables, onset and rime
syllable word part that contains a vowel or vowel sound
decoding word identification analysis to understand meaning.
segmenting breaking down words into individual phonemes
onset and rime onset: initial consonant sound of syllable, rime part of syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows
blending combining individual phonemes to form words
morpheme unit of meaning that cannot be divided
fast mapping using context clues to arrive at a quick guess of meaning
habituation children can distinguish abstract rules for sentence structure
holophrase single word that expresses a complete thought
overregulartizations applying rules across all word encounters "foots"
private speech talking out loud to oneself with no intention to communicate with others
telegraphic speech simplified speech
reading assessments alphbet knowledge, concepts about print, phonemic awareness and assessments, high frequency words, oral reading inventory, spelling inventory
teaching phonics in the classroom assess, plan, explicitly teach and model, select and design resource material for assessment, instruction, provide fluency practice, provide ongoing assessments.
fluency ability to read accurately and quickly, naturally, effortlessly, with expression
teaching fluency model, read aloud daily, choose appropriate text, assess independent reading level, use variety of materials
read aloud exercises choral, student-adult, tape-assisted, partner, readers theatre
implications of teaching vocablary implement strategies for reading specific words, provide repeated exposure to words, use word parts (prefix, suffix), use context clues use dictionary or aids
text comprehension ultimate goal of reading, ask questions, summarize, clarify, predict, think about content, model think alouds, discussions, bridging
activity in text comprehension where is it difficult? what is difficult? restate, look back then forward, use graphic organizers and semantic maps/webs, answer and ask questions...analyze story structure, summarize, activate prior knowledge, use mental imagery
subject-verb agreement single subject = single verb
verb tenses past present future, some irregular
adjective versus adverb adjective describes things, adverb describes actions
prounouns take the place of nouns
parallelism proper grammatical structure. running, swimming, biking. not run, swimming, biked
idioms widely accepted phrases
dangling modifier introductory phrase does not refer clearly or logically to the subject
misplaced modifier phrase is place too close to a words that it should not modify
the comma before a coordinating conjuction, set off interrupting or introductory phrases, set off nonessential clauses
the semicolon balance, separates elements of equal power of meaning. used to separate main clauses when not done by a coordinating conjunction
the colon formal introducer; translated to mean "as follows"
writing strategies prewrite, draft, revise, edit, proofread
dialect distinctive variety of vocabulary grammar and pronounciation spoken by members of regional group, nation, or social class
idiolect particular variety of a language used by an individual speaker or writer which are marked by peculiarities of vocab grammar, and pronounciation
characteristics of speech eye contact, posture, hand gestures, pace/clarity, volume and tone of voice
research strategies print, electronic + citing sources
novels same as short stories with more complicated plots, subplots, deepening development of ideas
short stores 20000-100000 words, singular/limited purpose. exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, denouement
folk tales prose narratives follow traditional storylines arise from oral traditions, original author never known, includes fairy tales, legends, fables, tall tales
alliteration repetition of sound usually initial consonant
analogy comparison of similar traits between dissimilar things in order to highlight similarity
figurative language word or phrase that departs from literal language
hyperbole deliberate exaggeration for effect
imagery word/phrases that appeal to the senses
irony use of words to suggest the opposite of their intended meaning
literal language actual definition of a word
metaphor figure of speect in which something is described as something else
symbol concrete object or image that represents abstract ideas
analyzing poetry dramatic situation? structure? theme? meaning? tone? important figures of speech or imagery?
genre literary form
jargon special language by a profession or group
literal not figurative, accurate
lyrical songlike
narrative technique procedures used in the telling of a story
novel fictional narrative in prose of considerable length; shorter = novellas, even shorter = short stories
omniscent point of view free to describe the thoughts of any character and skip about time
oxymoron combination of opposite, union of contradictory terms
parable designed to suggest a principle, illustrate a moral
paradox statement that seems to be self-contradicting but in fact is true
paradoy imitate the style of another composition for comedic effect
plot interrelated actions leading up to the climax
point of view vantage point
rhetorical question question asked for effect, need not answer
rhetorical techniques devices used to persuade
satire seeks to arouse readers disapproval of an object of ridicule
Created by: msanpedro54