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Management Tools

Types of management tools

Negotiation Seeks a resolution - all parties can agree. Utilize analytical, strategic, and practical approaches to problem solving while considering multiple courses of action. The goal of the negotiator is fostering good relationships and focus on common interests.
Team Building Team building seeks to instill a greater cohesiveness among people who are working on the same project or focused on the same goals. The team leader should create an environment that fosters cooperation and encourages team members to express their ideas.
Consensus Building Consensus building creates consensus among opposing interest groups and citizens. It seeks to garner agreement on issues by holding an open meeting in which participants collaborate and work together towards a common goal.
Coalition Building Coalition building fosters partnerships in order to work tougher towards a common goal, such as promoting a certain solution or implementing change. A manager must seek out people who share the outlook and goals of his organization.
Collaboration Collaboration is the act of different organizations working together on common interests or objectives. Often times, collaboration occurs between organizations from entirely different sectors - the public sector, the private sector, and non-profit sector.
Leadership Setting goals and providing constructive criticism/feedback. Although there are many different types of leaders, good leaders create an environment that foster cooperation and encourages participation of workers. Solving problems, plan, guide, negotiate.
Consultant Services Often acquired to provide assistance on projects. Project leaders must explain their precise needs for the project, answer questions as quickly as possible, and supply an additional data the consultant may need.
Management by Objective MBO seeks to create a set of all-encompassing objectives. This tool relies on a collaborate process that establishes plans, develops measureable objectives, and provides guidance on fulfilling objectives.
Scheduling Techniques
Gantt Charts Ghantt charts consist of rows and columns. Each row displays a separate task, and each column lists a specific date or time period. The chart includes horizontal bars, which represent the amount of time committed to each task.
PERT (Program Evaluation and Reporting Technique) PERT uses forked lines to show the duration of individual tasks and the relationships between tasks. Using PERT, planners can change time and resource allocations in order to keep the project on schedule.
Critical Path Method CPM displays each project activity as a line or node within a network. Places critical activities on critical path. Identifies which activities must be completed before other activities can begin. Can determine fewest resources needed for a project
Decision Matrix Consists of rows and columns. Each row lists an alternative, and each column lists an impact factor. Planners can create different hypothetical outcomes by weighing the various factors together.
Communication Techniques
Briefings Briefings inform stakeholders, such as elected officials, agencies, and interest groups, about a development project and its implications. Briefings may include telephone calls, small meetings, and personal visits.
Exhibits and Displays Exhibits/displays are means of communicating info to the public, usually by setting up in heavily trafficked areas such as malls and community centers. For best results, an informed individual should be running the display/exhibit and answering questions.
Feature Stories Presented by news reporters. Agencies can generate media interest for their projects - newspaper, TV, or radio.
Information Repositories Information repositories are often required by state and federal environmental law. They provide public access to any relevant documentation or studies that went into the decision-making process.
Internet Can be used to create information repositories and to provide other relevant data about the project, such as meetings, events and upcoming decisions. Allows people to share info about the project - email, chatrooms, hotlines, blogs, etc.
Mail system The mail system can be used to send out relevant technical reports and documents to various interest groups and agencies that may have concerns over the potential implications of the project. The mail system can be used for mass mailings to the public
Media Interviews Media interviews include both radio and TV talk show appearances. In many cases, talk shows will seek out the agency for an interview. The person who appears on the show should learn all he can about the talk show, its audience, and their concerns.
Media Kits Media kits contain relevant project and planning information, including summaries, technical studies, and documents relating to the planning process. they are distributed to reporters as a timesaving measure.
News Conferences Conferences convey information to the public. The planning agency holds a news conference, and invites the media. To generate interest, the agency should present interesting info and seek out a well-known speaker (elected official) so the media will come.
Newsletters Distributed to the most-interested groups and people.
Newspaper Inserts Include the same info found in a newsletter, but reach a wider range of people
News Releases News releases announce the planning project and include relevant information. they normally consist of two to three pages, and are sent to local news agencies as a means of generating interest for a story.
Panels Panels are groups of people who discuss the project in a public setting, such as a meeting or briefing sessions. Each person on the panel should represent a different interest or viewpoint.
Paid Advertisements Paid advertisements allow agencies to announce their project while simultaneously having total control over the content of the broadcast. although the general public usually responds well to advertisements, they can be expensive.
Presentation to community groups These are directed at community groups, such as interest groups, homeowners and business associations, and professional societies, is an effective means of communicating the project and building credibility.
Public Service Announcements Public service announcements are run by radio and TV stations free of charge. An agency can educate the public about the project by submitting a PSA to a local station. But, there is no guarantee the announcement will be run at a propitious time or at all
Symposia Symposia are public meetings that feature presentations, panel discussions, and question and answer sessions. By holding a symposium, a planning agency can educate the general public without making them take stances on issues.
Created by: jlongabaugh
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