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Praxis PLT

Instructional Strategies Principles of Learning and Teaching

Cognitive processes Critical thinking, Creative thinking, Questioning, Inductive/Deductive reasoning, Problem solving, Planning, Memory, Recall
Critical thinking to arrange, reason, and evaluate information, problem solving, making decisions
Creative thinking to produce original ideas or product
Inductive/Deductive reasoning Deductive is narrowing a generalization ex: All bald men are grandfathers. Harold is bald. Therefore, Harold is a grandfather. Inductive is broadening a narrow statement. ex: Harold is a grandfather. Harold is bald. Therefore, all grandfathers are bald.
Instruction Models direct, indirect, independent, experiential, interactive
Direct teacher gives information; lecture, practice, reading
Indirect student centered, teacher is facilitator and supporter; inquiry, problem solving, concept mapping
Independent self work or with another person with no support; research project, learning centers, computer instruction
Experiential Discovery learning; field trips, experiments, role play, games
Interactive discussions, group work, coop learning groups, peer instruction
Complex cognitive processes concept learning, problem solving, metacognition, critical thinking, transfer
Concept learning use webs
stages of learning acquisition stage, proficiency, maintenance, generalization, adaptation
problem solving coming up with a solution; schema method-recognizing an old solution can be changed to solve the current problem
transfer use previously learned material on new material
complex cognitive process activities fact/opinion, comparing/contrasting, recognizing bias, predicting, categorizing, analyzing, sequencing, summarizing, inferring, decision making, evaluating, synthesizing, generalizing
supports for student learning modeling, self-regulation skills, scaffolding, differentiating instruction, guided practice, coaching
developing self regulation skills set goals, manage time, organization, progress monitoring, reflection, productive work environment
classroom configurations whole group-large group, small group-groups of 4-6, independent learning-desks in pairs or large group, one-on-one-student with teacher while others are in small groups, pair/share-small groups
Created by: TinaPysz
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