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WGU IOC Constitution, Amen, Pres, Climate, Maps, Environment, History

Nonrenewable Resources Resources that cannot be recycled: copper, iron, uranium, raw petrolium, coal, oil
Renewable Resources Resources that can be successfully recycled: glass, plastic, water, paper, aluminum
Relief Map 3-D shading to show changes of altitude. Shows plains, mountains, rivers, deserts, plateaus
Climate Map Shows climate of a region using color or patterns
Topographical Map Detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural features on the ground. 3-D includes: Manmade features (roads, bridges, mines), shows relative position (proximity of nuclear plant to school), elevation
Political Map Includes country names, borders, physical ocean features and island names, boundaries, divisions and capitals
Mercado Globe Specializes in maintaining shape of objects, lines of longitude are parallel to one another. Equator is tangent to globe. Parallels of latitude grow further apart as they leave the equator
Robinson Globe Used by US geographic service, National Geography Society, and most educational institutions. Shows features without interruption and with little distortion.
What is a Climate? Long-term (30 years) weather including weather conditions, seasons, and extremes
Two factors determining climate Air temperature and Precipitation
Biome The complex of plants and animals common to a designated large physical region.
Three components of biome Climate, Plants, Animals
Biome is controlled by Climate
How climate changes lead to changes in culture or subculture Influences population distribution, avoid cold, learn to make warm clothing, advance hunting skills, types of houses made, high temperatures are better with water available, population dense in Egypt, mid-East, River Valleys in India, cold limiting factor
How elevation impacts climate Higher elevation equals colder, less human settlements, harsher circumstances, thinner soil, extreme temperatures, sparse vegetation
Deforestation Increased soil erosion, leads to impaired water cycle in specific ecosystems and ultimately the Earth. Destruction of large areas of forest due to clear cutting by humans
Global Warming Increased use of fossil fuels, coal, oil, natural gas, and gasoline has increased levels of carbon dioxide in lower atmosphere (Greenhouse Effect)
Energy Development Increased competition for scarce resources (coal) and increased local pollution levels like acidic rain. Petrolium production has negative impact by increasing human activity; hydroelectric projects alter terrain
Population Growth Increased demand for food; As population increases, farming, construction, mining and energy development decrease
How regional natural resources impact economic and political decision making Competing transportation costs for resources will determine locations of mills
How regional natural resources impact world economy Creates shortages and causes economic decline in areas, in turn causes areas to have to import
How political lines are determined Natural boundaries (rivers, mountain ranges, deserts, etc)
Two key factors for population growth rate Birth and death rates
Limiting factors for population growth rate Oxygen and water
Olmecs Gulf Coast
Pawnee Nebraska / Platt River
Cherokee Southeast, North & South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee
Mayans Southern Mexico / Yucatan
Inca Peru / Chile
Azetc Mexico
Nez Perce Idaho / Oregon
Who was funded by Queen Isabella of Spain and landed in San Salvador, mistaking it for the Indies and later explored Cuba? Christopher Columbus
Ships Columbus sailed with Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
Who sailed from Cuba to Mexico, founded Vera Cruz, and conquered teh Aztec Empire in 1591? Hernan Corez
Who crossed Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean? Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Who sailed on a 3 year voyage around the world? Ferdinand Magellan
Who overtook the Inca in Peru; established Lima & Peru? Francisco Pizarro
Conquistidors Spanish Soldiers who were granted trusteeship over indigenous people; seized land, increased taxes, and forced natives into slavery
Requerimeinto Document threatening to enslave Native Americans if Spanish demands were not met
Encomienda Oppression of Native Americans by the Spanish
Black Legend Description of Spaniards oppression of Native Americans
The Great Migration Result of persecution of the Puritans in the 1630s
Toleration Act Freedom of religion in Baltimore to anyone professing to believe in Jesus Christ
Treaty of Tordesillas Divided land between Spain and Portugal
John Cabot aka Giovanni Catoto; English explorer of East Coast America
Who sailed around Africa to India and opened first all water trade route between Europe and Asia? Da Gama
Who was the first European to sight NY? Verrzonno
Who inspired Columbus with descriptions of the Far East? Marco Polo
What colony was established in Chesapeake Bay, VA by John Smith? Jamestown
Why did Jamestown fail? Food shortages, Indian attacks, Malaria, Gold digging preoccupation
Who was the first governor of the Puritan colony in Cape Cod? William Bradford
Who founded Rhode Island in 1636? Roger Williams
Who founded PA and the Quaker settlement? William Penn
North Region with industrial economy; opposed slavery
South Region with agricultural economy; tobacco, rice and cotton; supported slavery
Sugar Act Great Britain taxed colonies on sugar, molasses, and wine
Stamp Act Required an official stamp on all documents. John Adams stated, "The pot is set to boil"
Tea Act Allowed British East Indie tea company to sell tea to colonies without paying tax; resulted in Boston Tea Party
Declaratory Act Asserted British governments the right to impose taxes
Townsend Act Duty tax, search, and seizure
Quartering Act British soldiers were permitted to live in colonists homes for free
Boston Massacre 6 colonists shot in Boston during fight between colonists and British troops
Trail of Tears Andrew Jackson; Cherokee were forced to leave Georgia for Oklahoma; 4000 died
Manifest Destiny Belief that US had a divine mission to expand and spread democracy and freedom
Louisiana Purchase Thomas Jefferson; Purchased for $15 million
Treaty of Guadalupe US acquired territories at the end of the Mexican War: NM, AZ, CA, CO, UT, NV
Gadsden Purchase US purchase of what is now southern AZ and NM from Mexico
Alaska William Seward; Purchased from Russia for $7 million
Hawaii President McKinley; added to US in 1898
Compromise of 1850 Admitted CA as a free state
Kansas-Nebraska Act Allowed new states to decide slavery; repealed Missouri Compromise; split Louisiana Purchase into 2 territories; led slavery opponents to form Republican Party
The Movement Fueled by Uncle Tom's Cabin - portrayed cruelties of slavery
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln; document published after no compromise was reached to end slavery in southern states
Post WWI Economy of US expanded at unprecedented rates
Buying on Credit Commonplace after WWI; by 1929, more than $7 billion owed to creditors
Stock Market Crash of 1929 Great Depression; $25 billion investments lost; Congress passed Smoot-Hawley Tariff to increase revenues
Franklin Roosevelt New Deal: FDIC, SSA, CCC, AAA; Entered WWII, Cash and Carry on weapons during WWII, Pearl Harbor
George Washington Elected first President; set precedent for new Presidents; served two 4 year terms
James Madison 4th president; "Father of Constitution"; War of 1812
Thomas Jefferson Louisiana Purchase; commissioned Lewis & Clarke
Abraham Lincoln Civil War; ended slavery
John F. Kennedy Challenged Congress to put a man on the moon; Headed Civil Rights movement during MLK; Space program; Vietnam
Richard Nixon Watergate; Diplomatic opening with China; 27th Amendment; Roe v. Wade; Troops home from Vietnam
Ronald Reagan End of Cold War; Berlin wall came down
Lyndon Johnson Start of Vietnam War; 24th Amendment; abolished poll tax
Dwight Eisenhower General during WWII
Woodrow Wilson President during WWII
Steel Driven by need for steam, oil, steel, and coal
Railroad Beginning of development of cities; reduced families living on farms
WWI US entered 3 years in b/c of Russian revolution
WWII Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; US aided England and France
Gerard Mercator created 1st projection map
Conic Projections Superimposed a cone on globe
Equal-Area Projections Maps today use equal-area projections with horizontal parallels
Characteristics of Ecosystems Dynamic; interaction among livign and non-living members; self-sustaining; biomes are mutually supportive
Tundra Cold temps; permafrost; no trees/tall plants; shrubby vegetations w/roots that don't penetrate subsoil; mosquitoes b/c of standing water
Tropical Forest Variable rainfall; wet and dry seasons; high amounts of light; high number of tree species
Desert Less than 30 cm of annual rainfall; aren't always hot; some cold at night, some cold year-round; cacti-succulents; desert mice, snakes, nocturnal species
Grassland Seasonal drought; periodic fires; grasses predominant vegetation; nutrients stored underground; birds, small rodents, grazing mammals
Savannah Alternate rainy seasons with periods of drought; periodic fires; perennial grasses, flowering trees, fire adapted; large herbivores (zebras), their predators (lions), predominant herbivores are insects (ants, termites)
Freshwater Biomes less than 1% salt concentration; only cover a small area of Earth's surface; include swamps, ponds, lakes
Marine Biomes 3% salt concentration; found through-out 75% of Earths surface
Rivers Moving water; oxygen content of water is high
Elevation Earth grows colder at higher elevations; temps drop 3.5 degrees F for every 1,000 feet of altitude
Latitude As Earth tilts and rotates, various areas receive more direct rays from sun
Political policies of US Dictated by presence or lack of natural resources
US demand for petroleum Dictated that the US will be more involved in mid-east countries to protect oil supply
Japan after WWI Wold power & industrial giant; no natural resources (iron, ore, rubber, oil)
Consumption of Natural Resources As demand increases, the ability to keep supply and cost down decreases
Factors influencing society development climate, locations, natural boundaries, technology, natural resources
President Commander/Chief
Vice President Leader of Senate
Legislative Brance Congress, House of Rep. Senate
Congress Declare war, maintain military, regulate commerce, coin money
House of Rep. 2 year term; reps per state based on state's population; tax laws, power to impeach President, decide if gov. officials go to trial
Senate 6 year term; 100 members; Power to remove official from office, hold trials for gov't officials, confirm or disapprove treaties or Pres. appts.
Judicial Branch Supreme Court
Federal Judiciary Act Gave judges appointments for life
Participation Examples: voting in local, state and national elections
National Power Govt. exerpts power over states by direct orders, preemption of auth, and grants in aid
State Power States have limited power over fed. govt; can exercise power through lobbying
Fundamental Federalism Basic rules of federalism were established
Dual Federalism National & state govts had distinct jurisdictions and didn't intrude upon each other
Cooperative Federalism National government stepped in when states were unable to solve problems
Coercive Federalism National govt assumed so much power that state and local govts were reduced to minor roles
Devolutionary Federalism Govt began transferring authority back to each state
Strength of 2 party system Allows for greater representation of people
Weakness of 2 party system Excludes any opinions outside of 2 parties
Articles of Confederation Left too much power to states and not enough to govt.
Constitution Framers challenged to write a form of govt that would adhere principles fought for in Revolutionary War
Bill of Rights Citizens felt Constitution was not enough and insisted Bill of Rights be added before radification
Marbury v. Madison Unconstitutional to force appointments
Dred Scott Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
Plessy v. Ferguson Challenged Separate Railroad Car Act of 1892; Court upheld act
Brown v. Board of Education Court ruled separate but equal education unconstitutional; Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson
Roe v. Wade Women has right to terminate pregnancy
Susan B. Anthony Paved way for women's rights; 19th Amendment
Federalists Represented educated property owners; supported Constitution; promised Bill of Rights
Anti-Federalists Worried about centralized govt w/ too much power; wanted to keep govt local
Cesar Chavez Founded Farm Workers Assoc; organized migrant workers through CA
Ponce de Leon Discovered Florida while searching for Fountain of Youth
War of 1812 Britain and US
Headright System System of land distribution; workers came from Britain for specified time in exchange for 50 acres of land, free passage to US
Missouri Compromise Admitted Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state
Fugitive Slave Law Made it easier for slave owners to recapture runaway slaves
Gibbons v. Ogden Affirmed and expanded power of govt to regulate interstate commerce
Miller v. Oregon established special protections for working women
7 years war Britain against France for control of US; French and Indian War
2nd Continental Congress Organized Continental Army and commissioned Washington to lead it
Dartmouth College v. Woodward Ruled that Constitution protected charters given to corporations by states
McCulloch v. Maryland Banking case asserted supremacy of federal power over state power
1st Continental Congress Delegates from 12 colonies in 1774
Sir Walter Raleigh Established first English colony at Roanoke Island
Andrew Johnson Black Codes; Jim Crow laws, CRA
Theodore Roosevelt US Steel Corp; International Harvest Corp; Northern Securites Corp
Herbert Hoover Refused to do much during Great Depression
Harry Truman A-bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Truman Doctrine - $400 million in military aid to Greece and Turkey; Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe
Executive Branch Approve or veto bills; make treaties; grant pardons; enforce laws; commission officers; head of state; appoints cabinet members and National CEO
Bleeding Kansas Anti-slavery extermist John Brown and followers took 5 pro-slavery ment from cabins in Kansas and murdered them
Events that fueled Civil War conflict over slavery Territorial expansion (Compromise of 1850), Fugitive Slave Act, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Bleeding Kansas
Great Society Programs Federal funds to schools, program for disadvantaged preschoolers, federal intervention to protect African American voting in 6 states, insurance program for people over 65
How regional natural resources impact international relations Possession of rare materials (South Africa) and large deposits of energy resources (Saudi Arabia) strenghten a states position in global affairs. Fewer resources can be overcome (Japan)
1st Amendment Five Freedoms: Speech, religion, press, assemly, peaceful protest
2nd Amendment Right to bear arms
3rd Amendment Quartering Soldiers
4th Amendment Unreasonable search/seizure
5th Amendment Right to due process
6th Amendment Due process continued
7th Amendment Civil Law
8th Amendment Bail, fines, cruel punishment
9th Amendment Protection of unlisted rights
10th Amendment Power of states & people
11th Amendment Suites against the states
12th Amendment Electing President / VP
13th Amendment Slavery ended
14th Amendment Citizens rights in the states / Equal protection
15th Amendment Voting of African Americans
16th Amendment Income Tax
17th Amendment Election of Senators / 6 year term
18th Amendment Prohibition of alcohol
19th Amendment Right to vote for women
20th Amendment Executive & Legislative Terms of Office
21th Amendment Repeal of prohibition
22nd Amendment President restricted to two 4 yr terms
23rd Amendment Right to vote in DC
24th Amendment Poll tax prohibited
25th Amendment Presidential succession
26th Amendment Voting age lowered to 18
27th Amendment Laws changing congressional compensation
Created by: Grace2495