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UND 363 Pig,min,cyto

UND 363 Pigments, minerals, cytoplasm

QuestionAnswer
What are pigments Organic or inorganic compound that is insoluble with solvents, they are visible without stains
What are the three classifications of pigments Artifact (chemically), Endogenous (internal), Exogenous (external)
Describle artifactual pigments and give 3 examples deposited in tissue due to chemical action, formalin pigment, mercury pigment, chrome pigment)
how can each of the three artifactual pigments be prevented or removed Formalin (ph under 6.0, remove with alcoholic picric acid or alkaline alcohol), Mercury (iodine folloed by sodium thiosulfate), Chrome (wash before dehydration)
what does formalin pigment appear as on a slide abundant dark brown crystalline pigment (is birefringent)
Describe exogenous pigments acccess to body via inhalation, ingestion, implantation. Has no physiological function (ie carbon *most common*, asbestos, tattoo pigment, metals)
exogenous pigment due to asbestos has what properties dumbbell shape, birefringent, inhaled and becomes coated (will lose birefringence after coating), can be ID'd with prussian blue, digested with 40% NaOH and seen with polarization - cut at 20 micron
exogenous pigment carbon has what properties black, found in lungs and LN, cannot be bleached or dissolved, aids in differentiation from other pigments
exogenous tattoo pigment has what properties In skin or LN, rarely needs special ID
what are the three types of endogenous pigments hematogenous (blood derived), non-hematogenous (melanin, lipofuchsin, chromaffin), endogenous minerals (Ca, Cu, uric acid and urates)
give common facts about endogenous pigments produced within tissue (physiologic, or by product of normal process)
what are the three principal hematogenous endogenous pigments hemoglobin, hemosiderin, and bile
Describe hemoglobin endogenous hematogenous pigment in RBC's (which transport O2 and CO2), composed of protein, globin, and heme, stains with acid dyes (eosin or the okajima technique)
where can hemoglobin typically be found near recent hemorage or renal tubules after excessive hemolysis and tubular casts
what is the life span of RBC's and what occurs after breakdonw 120 days, breaks down into globin and heme, the heme will break again into iron and green bile (biliverdin)
haver heme breaks into iron and bile what happens to the iron iron is conserved for new hemoglobin, stored in bone marrow or spleen as hemosiderin (yellow to brown pigment) if not needed
what is hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis hemochromatosis - disease caused by excessive iron absorption (ie excessive hemosiderin deposits), hemosiderosis is excessive heosiderin.
describe endogenous hematogenous bile pigments rbc splits to globin and heme, heme splits again into iron and bile. Bile is (biliverdin) is reduced to bilirubin in liver, bilirubin is stored in gall bladder and released into duodenum
what occurs with bile is obstructed accumulation of bile and imparts yellow color in skin (jaundice)
describe endogenous hematogenous porphyrin pigments natural occurr, precursor of heme, erythropoietic progophyria (enzyme defiency) causes deposits in liver, can be seen in FS bright red flourescencs, or paraffin sections with polarized light (bright red)
What are endogenous nonhematogenous pigments melanin, lipofuchsin, ceroid
describe endogenous nonhematogenous melanin derived from tyrosine, Id via bleaching (10% hydrogen peroxide or potassium permanganate), dissolved by strong alkali but insoluble in weak acids and bases or organic solvents
what causes melanin to form dopa oxidase and enzyme in melanocytes
describe endogenous nonhematogenous lipofuchsin wear and tear pigment, yellow brown pigment, occurs throughout body (liver, cardiac muscle, ovary, etc...)
describe endogenous nonhematogenous ceroid yellow bron pigment in liver and phagocytes, rarely seen in humans, insoluble in alcohol, dilute acids, acetone etc...
what are the 4 typical endogenous nonhematogenous minerals iron, calcium, copper, uric acid and urates
give facts about endogenous nonhematogenous calcium abnormal deposits associated with tuberculosis, infarction, usually occurs as phophate or carbonate, fixes used neutral formalin, formol alcohol
give facts about endogenous nonhematogenous copper essential componet of several body enzymes, 2 disorders of copper are wilsons disease and liver disease
give facts about endogenous nonhematogenous uric acid and urates uric acid is created via purin breakdown and excreted by kidneys
where are urates deposited and hwat do they cause deposited in tissue and joints, In "gout" large deposits of uric acid or urate crystals accumulate to form "tophi"
what are urates soluble in and what must be used instead soluble in H20, must use alcoholic fixation.
how can urate cryostals be seen birefringent therefore can be id'd via polarizing micro
give facts about endogenous nonhematogenous cytoplasmic granules can be demonstrated via argyrophil and/or argentaffin reactions (argy'n needs reducer, whereas argent'n does not)
what are the four cytoplasmic granules chromaffin granules, endocrine granules, argentaffin granules, paneth granules
Created by: mustangvxd