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PDx Final

Neck Vessels, Lung, Heart, Female, Peripheral Vascular System

QuestionAnswer
How far should extension of the neck veins go above the suprasternal notch? 2cm
Procedure to observe filling of the neck veins Strip down from Above
What stops upon compression of the neck veins? Pressure changes from the heart
What does Jugular Filling Level represent? Right Atrium pressure
Jugular filling level will do what during inspiration? Drop inferior as patient inhales - Blood and air are sucked into chest upon inspiration
Increased Venous Waves suggest? High pressure in the right atrium - Tricuspid Stenosis
Absence of Venous Pulsations suggest? Right atrium blocked of normal pressure changes - Lung tumor obstruction
Kussmaul's Sign Paradoxical increase in vein column during inspiration - Constrictive pericarditis with tamponade
Pulsus Tardus Pulse taken peripherally is weak and arrives late - Suggest obstruction
Water-Hammer Pulse High pulse pressures - Aortic Regurgitation
Apex Beat Most lateral pulsation that can be seen
Angina Pectoris Paroxysmal (sudden, sharp attack) pain may radiate to neck, jaw, left arm. - Myocardial Ischemia
Arteriosclerosis Hardening and thickening of the arterial walls due to plaque formation.
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial quiver, "irregularly irregular" Blood is not completely pumped out of Atrium May result in clotting of blood
Atrial Flutter Rapid regular atrial rhythm
Auscultatory Gap Sound is not heard - Hypertension - Aortic Stenosis
Bigeminal Pulse Abnormal Pulse: Strong beat..weak beat.......no beat....strong beat..weak beat.......no beat - Premature Contractions - Digitalis Toxicity - Partial Heart Block (missed beat)
Bradycardia Abnormally slow heart rate, under 60 BPM
Bruit Harsh/musical sound caused by turbulent flow through an artery
Coarctation Stricture or narrowing of lumen of vessels
Diastole Resting period when Ventricles fill with blood
Ectopic "Out of place" heartbeat. In some abnormal focus other than the SA Node
Embolus Mobile foreign object in vessels
Gallop Rhythm Extra heart sound causes a triple cadence/canter
Heave Palpable diffuse, lift of chest wall
Hepatojugular Reflux Venous pressure rises when upper abdomen compressed and Jugular Vein becomes prominent - Right Heart Failure
Holosystolic (Pansystolic) Murmur
Homan's Sign Calf pain associated with Dorsiflexion of foot - Thrombophlebitis
Hypovolemic Shock State of shock resulting from massive blood loss
Inching Small sliding movements of the stethoscope over the precordium
Infarct Localized area of tissue necrosis
Intermitten Claudication Prolonged ischemia to the legs results in pain, aching and cramping.
Ischemia Diminished blood supply resulting in lack of oxygen
Korotkoff Sound Sounds heard during blood pressure measurement due to turbulent flow
Palpitation Awareness of one's heart beating - Pounding - Fluttering - Racing
Paradoxic Pulse Diminished pules amplitude on inspiration Increased pules amplitude on expiration - Cardiac Tamponade
Point of Maximum Impulse Near the Apex in 4th-5th intercostal space, heart beat most clearly palpated
Precordium Area of chest that overlies the heart and great vessels
Pulse Pressure Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure - 30-40mmHg
Pulsus Alternans Alternating pulse. Strong beat alternate with weak beat - Severe Myocardial Disease - Hypertension - Coronary Artery Disease - Left Ventricular Failure
Sinus Arrhythmia Normal pulse pattern that speeds upon inspiration and slows with expiration
Systole Ventricular contraction ejecting blood
Tachycardia Rapid heart rate, more than 100BPM - Anemia - Heart Failure - Shock - Exercise - Anxiety
Thrill Palpable murmur from heart
Thrombophlebitis Clot formation in vein caused by - Trauma - Prolonged Immobility - Postoperation - Infection - Blood Hypercoagulation Disorder
Thrombus Blood clot attached to inner wall of a vessel
Raynaud's Pallor followed by Cyanosis and rubor
Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease) Ulceration and Gangrene at tips of fingers and toes
Cellulitis Red streaks on skin
Edema in upper limb Lymphedema
Cyanosis Deoxygenated hemoglobin seen through skin. Blue or purple color
Onychomycosis Yellowing nails
Cough Mechanical or chemical irritation of trachea or bronchi
Sputum Air passage secretion Green = Bacteria Clear/Yellow = Viral
Pleurisy Inflammation of pleura due to viral infection
Orthopnea Dyspnea while lying flat
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea Dyspnea suddenly at night
Vesicular Breath Sound Soft, low pitched, heard over both lungs, 3/4:!
Bronchial Breath Sound loud, high pitch heard over manubrium, 1:2 or 1:3
Bronchovesicular Breath Sound Intermediate intensity and pitch, over the 1st and 2nd interspaces and between the scapulae
Late Inspiratory Crackles Fine - Fireplace
Early Inspiratory Crackles Coarse - Shovel scraping sidewalk
Midinspiratory and Expiratory Crackles With wheeze and rhonchi
Wheeze Whislting, squeaking, musical sound
Stridor High-pitched, noisy respiration - blowing wind
Rhonchi Coarse, rattling, snoring aound.
Areola Circular, darker pigmented area around nipple
Montgomery Glands Small sebaceous glands in Areola
Cooper Ligaments Suspensory ligaments of breast
Tail of Spence Upper outer tail of breast
5 D's related to nipples Discharge, Depression, Discoloration, Dermatologic changes, Deviation
Breast Retratction Shortening or drawing backward of skin
Inverted Nipple Turned in nipple
Paget's Disease of the Breast Excoriating or scaling lesion
Peau D'orange Dimpling of the skin resembling an orange
Supernumerary Nipple Extra nipple along the milk line
Striae Mechanical stretching of skin causes lines
Dilated Superficial Veins Increased blood flow from the breast. Indicative of Cancer, Pregnancy, Lactation
Mastitis Inflammation of breast
Gynecomastia Abnormally large mammary glands in the male
Fibrocystic Disease Cyst formation and intraductal hyperplasia. Cycle with menstrual cycle
Fibroadenoma of the Breast Benign Neoplasm
Nipple Discharge Lactation, Mastitis, Cancer
Colic Spasmodic pain in abdomen
Epigastric Pain and Heartburn Reflux esophagitis, Gastric ulcer, Duodenal ulcer
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum
Nonpigmented Stools "Acholic" stool
Melena Dark, tarry stool
Hematochezia Passage of bloody stool
Hematemesis Vomiting of blood
Coffee Ground Emesis Blood mixed with acid
Ascites Serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Linea Nigra Increase pigmentation along the Linea Alba
Diastasis Recti Mound of tissue between Rectus Abdominis
Gravida Pregnant woman
Para Given birth to one or more infants
Menarche Onset of menstruation
Amenorrhea Absence of pregnancy
Oligomenorrhea Menstrual periods occurring at 35 day intervals
Primary Amenorrhea Menses have never occured
Secondary Amenorrhea Menses appeared at puberty but has stopped
Dysmenorrhea Abnormal pain upon menstrual cycle
Leukorrhea White, vaginal discharge
Menorrhagia Abnormally heavy or extended menstrual periods
Metrorrhagia Uterine bleeding not related to menstruation
Dyspareunia Pain with sexual intercourse
Menopause Permanent cessaton of menses
Mittelschmerz Abdominal pain at time of ovulation
Stress Incontinence Loss of urine with increased intra-abdominal pressure.
Cystocele Bulging of anterior vaginal wall. Protrusion of Urinary Bladder
Rectocele Bulging of posterior vaginal wall. Protrusion of intestinal contents
Uterine Prolapse Urogenital diaphragm problem. Uterus may migrate to vaginal opening.
Cervicitis Inflammation of uterine cervix
Endo-Cervical Polyp Nonmalignant growth/tumor protruding from mucous lining of cervix
Gravid Cervix Pregnant
Trichomonas Vaginitis Yellow, green or grey discharge may be frothy
Condyloma Acuminatum Soft, warty papillomatous projection on labia and vaginal vestibule
Condyloma Latum Raised, moist, flattened papules on Labia or in Vaginal vestibule
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Inflammation in pelvic cavity
Endometriosis Endometrial tissue in abnormal location.
Uterine Fibroids Calcified fibroids, bleeding, normally benign
Created by: 1632232938