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Government Midterm

Ch. 1-8

QuestionAnswer
permanent campaign condition that prevails in the new American democracy when the next election campaign begins as soon as the last has ended and the line between electioneering and governing has disappeared
4 key functions of government -Protects citizens from unlawful activity -Regulates social and economic relationships -Provides services -Defends the country from foreign aggression
classic types of government Monarchy-- Tyranny(rule by one Aristocracy-- Oligarchy (rule by few) Democracy-- “Mobocracy” (rule by many people)
direct democracy A type of government in which all citizens participate personally in making governmental decisions
representative democracy Individuals, periodically chosen by citizens, who have the authority to decide what governments do
constituencies people legally entitle to vote for an officeholder
prospective voting (delegate) voting pattern in which citizens look to the future while voting, taking into account each candidate's campaign promises.
trustee one who acts on behalf of the interests of the citizens rather than according to the citizens' past preferences
primary elections a preliminary contest that narrows the number of the parties' candidates and determines who will be the nominees in the general election
initiative proposed law or state constitutional amendment placed on the ballot in response to a citizen petition
recall elections attempts to remove incumbents from office before the completion of their terms
separation of elections(permanent campaign) increased number of elections, shortened time between elections
decay of party organization(permanent campaign) candidates must build individualized, personal campaign organizations almost from scratch
spread of primaries(permanent campaign) intra party elections
rise of mass communication(permanent campaign) candidates can communicate directly with voters, but their mistakes are easily publicized
voter participation the power of the few
nominating candidates the power of the few
campaign resources the power of the few
colonial experience with democracy -Raleigh failed at establishing a functioning colony "Virginia" -Virginia Company is a group of investors that named colony Jamestown which was self-government -King James ruled by Divine Right which is God selects the sovereign for the people
Divine Right -made Virginia become a royal colony where the King ruled -Puritans sailed Mayflower and rejected the divine right of kings
governance of the colonies -most were proprietary colonies which were governed by either an English noble or by company -9 out of 13 were royal; power by governor and two chambered legislature
voting qualifications women, slaves, indentured servants could not vote
taxation without representation levying of taxes by a government in which the people are not represented by their own elected officials
Stamp Act required that colonists purchase a stamp on official documents
Continental Congress issued a statement of rights and called total boycott of British goods
Declaration of Independence July 4, 1996, Continental Congress asserting the political independence of US from Britain
consent of the governed Thomas Hobbes said kings governed not by divine rule, but by consent of the governed
separation of powers John Locke; government arises from consent of people by legislative & executive law
whig theory took theory in Common Sense by Thomas Paine; leading up to the Revolution
Articles of Confederation first basic governing document of US and forerunner to the Constitution
Shay's Rebellion armed uprising in Massachusetts in 1786 that further demand for Constitutional change
Annapolis Convention where A. Hamilton, J. Madison and ten other delegates met to discuss constitutional reforms in 1786
Virginia Plan constitutional proposal supported by delegates form large state; proportional representation
New Jersey Plan small state proposal for Constitutional reform; equal representation of each state
Article I
Article II
Article III
judicial review court authority to declare laws null and void on the grounds that they violate the Constituition
Bill of Rights the first 10 amendments to the Constitution
Federalist, Anti-Federalist Debate Federalist argument largely won out, while AF support for Bill or Rights significant
devolution return of governmental responsibilities to the state and local governments
unitary government system of government under which all authority is held by a single, national government
necessary and proper clause constitutional provision that allows for expanding the scope of national government powers from beyond simply the delegated powers; elastic
cooperative federalism theory that all levels of government can work together (marble cake federalism)
general revenue sharing comprehensive form of grants begun during the Nixon administration, involved giving funds from taxes at the national level, to the states, to be used for any purpose
federalism division of sovereignty between at least two different levels of government
block grants intergovernmental grants with a broad set of objectives, a minimum of federal restrictions and a maximum discretion for local officials
dual sovereignty theory of federalism saying that both the national and state governments have final authority over their own policy domains
nullification doctrine that says that states have the authority to declare acts of Congress unconsitutional
supremacy clause constitutional provision that says the laws of the national government "shall be the supreme Law of the Land"
pork barrel projects Special legislative benefits targeted toward the constituents of particular members of Congress
categorical grants Federal grants to state, local governments that impose programmatic restrictions on use of funds
unfunded mandates federal regulations that impose burdens on state and local governments without appropriating enough money to cover costs
commerce clause constitutional provision that gives Congress power to regulate commerce "among the states"
McCulloch v. Maryland decision in which the Supreme Court first used judicial review to declare a state law unconstitutional
New Deal programs created by the Franklin Roosevelt administration that expanded the power of the federal government for the purpose of stimulating economic recovery and safety for those in need
international grant grant from the national government to a state or local government
reapportionment redrawing of electoral district lines to reflect population changes
state sovereign immunity legal doctrine based on 11th Amendment
state and local governments play a more prominent role in the federal system than they have for several decades
problems of implementation -national and local officials serving different constituencies -delays and confusion with many participants -federal policymakers raise unrealistic expectations
Created by: kmb54