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APUSH Review 1

Early America-Late 1700's

Astrolabe Instrument that enabled navigators to calculate their latitude using the sun and stars Allowed more accuracy in plotting routes during the Age of Discovery
Aztecs Advanced Native American society located in central Mexico Conquered in 1521 by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortez (defeat aided by smallpox brought to Mexico by Spanish)
Crusades European attempts to capture the Holy Land in the Middle Ages Europeans acquired an appreciation of the economic benefits of overseas expansion and slavery
Hunter-Gatherers Early societies that existed not by farming but by moving from place to place and gathering food as they went Some early N.A. tribes in Northern New England land lived as hunter-gatherers
Huguenots Protestants in France, who by the 1630's were believers in Calvinism Few Huguenots ended up settling in the Americas, as French officials feared they would disrupt the unity of colonial settlements
Jesuits Catholic missionary group that established settlements in Florida, NM, Paraguay and several areas within French territory in North America Were organized with military precision and order
Franciscans Catholic missionaries who established settlements in the late 1500s in what is now South West U.S. Christian conversion @ Missions, Native Americans were virtually slaves- Rebellions start in 1598
Puritans Religious dissidents who left England for America to establish a "purer" church Settled Plymouth Colony in 1620 and the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630- heavily influenced by John Calvin and his concept of predestination
Church of England Also called the Anglican Church, Protestant state church established by King Henry VIII Religious radicals desired purer church than was allowed by monarchs in the early 17th century, causing some to leave for Americas
Calvinism Protestant faith that preached salvation "by faith alone" and predestination The desire of Calvinists in England to create a "pure church" was only partly successful, so many Calvinist Puritans went to the New World starting in 1620
Separatists Calvinist Protestants who did not believe that the Church of England could be "purified" and hence chose to "separate" from it The Pilgrims who sailed to America aboard the Mayflower and settled at Plymouth were separatists looking for religious freedom
London Company In 1603, King James I gave the London Company a charter to settle the Virginia territory In April 1607, the first settlers from this company settled at Jamestown- 1st successful English colony
Powhatan Confederacy Alliance of N.A. tribes living in the region of the initial Virginia settlement Powhatan, leader of this alliance, tried to live in peace with the English settlers when they arrived in 1607
Indentured Servitude A legal arrangement in which an individual owed compulsory service (3 to 10 years) in exchange for free passage to the American colonies Many of the early settlers in the VA colony came as indentured servants
Samuel de Champlain French explorer who established the first permanent settlement in Canada in Quebec Worked to protect his settlement by making alliances with the Hurons and other Native American tribes
John Winthrop Helped found the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629-also in 1629 he was elected governor, and held the position for 20 yrs-Puritan Saw the colony as a "city upon a hill"-godly community far from the corrupting influences of England
Anne Hutchinson A Puritan housewife, she claimed to have received special revelations from God, angering many leaders of the MA Bay Colony Expelled from MA, she and her family joined other dissenters like Roger Williams in RI
Mercantilism Economic policy practiced by most European states in the late 17th century under which states actively sought to create wealth as a means to power Mercantilist states minimized trade with outsiders and maximized it with their colonies
Navigation Acts Measures enacted by Charles II in 1660 to increase the dependence of the colonies on England for trade Goods (like tobacco) could only be sold to England, and all trade with other countries had to go through England- often ignored/not enforced in America
Dominion of New England A consolidation of the colonies of RI, MA, CT, NY, Plymouth, and NH by King James II in 1686 The Dominion ended in April 1686, following the overthrow of King James during the Glorious Revolution
Triangular Trade System Complex trading relationship that developed in the late 17th century between the Americas, Europe, and Africa Europeans purchased African slaves to sell in the Americas, raw material from Americas was sold to Europe, and manufactured goods from Europe were sold in the Americas
Middle Passage Voyage across the Atlantic taken by slaves on their way to Americas Sickness, disease, & death rampant- some ships >20% of slaves died by the time the ship landed
Stono Rebellion 1739 slave rebellion in S Carolina in which more than 75 slaves killed white citizens & marched countryside After rebellion, slave owners imposed harsher discipline, largest slave rebellion in 18th century America
King William's War Colonial war against the French that lasted from 1689-1697 An army from New England colonies attacked Quebec but was forced to retreat b/c of lack of strong leadership & outbreak of smallpox
Queen Anne's War Known as the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe, ran from 1702-1713, pitted England against France & Spain Native Americans fought on both sides, English were victorious & won Hudson Bay & Nova Scotia from France
Proprietorships Settlements in America that were given to individuals who could govern and regulate the territory in any manner they desired Ex. Charles I gave the Maryland territory to Lord Baltimore as a proprietorship
Colonial Assemblies Existed in all British colonies in America First was VA House of Burgesses, members were almost always upper class
Salutary Neglect British policy of the early 18th century stating that as long as the American colonies remained politically loyal and continued trade with Great Britain, gov't would relax enforcement of Navigation Acts Despite this, tension continued to exist between British trade policy & colonists
Molasses Act Early 1700s, colonists traded molasses with the French West Indies-British traders pressured Parliament to pass the Molasses Act in 1733 which put high duties (taxes) on imported molasses Americans evaded British officials and smuggled French molasses into the colonies
Great Awakening Great religious revival that swept through the colonies from the 1720s to 1740s. Preachers challenged "cold" message of established churches and stirred congregations with powerful, emotive sermons Encouraged a sense of social equality and the questioning of authority
Slavery The first African Americans entered VA as workers in 1619, when few legal differences existed between black and white workers- by 1670s-1680s Africans slavery was widespread in the Chesapeake colonies The trading of slaves became an integral part of the triangular trade system
Nathaniel Bacon 1676, Bacon led a rebellion of farmers protesting Royal Governor Sir William Berkeley's lenient policy towards the Indians Bacon died after burning Jamestown, following years, the VA gentry limited the power of the royal governor
Deerfield Raid In 1704, the Iroquois joined with the French to attack Deerfield, MA, killing 48 settlers and taking 112 into captivity Native Americans fought on both sides during the 18th century wars of the empire in America
George Whitefield Anglican minister who proved to be a dynamic and charismatic preacher during the Great Awakening, preached to as many as 20,000 people at a time His 1740 tour of the colonies was the high point of the Great Awakening
Albany Congress 1754 meeting of representatives of 7 colonies that coordinated their efforts against French and N.A. threats in the western frontier Ben Franklin proposed a plan of union that was rejected by both the colonies and the British gov't
French and Indian War AKA Seven Years War British & French fought to expand their empires in the Americas from 1754-1763, spread to Europe & rest of world in 1756 British were victorious , receiving French Canada as their main spoils of war
Currency Act 1764 British act forbidding colonies to issues paper money as legal tender Repealed in 1773 by British as an effort to ease tensions with colonies
Sugar Act Effort to pay for the British army located in N America (7 Years War), 1764 taxed sugar and other imports- make $ from American trade with West Indies Harsh penalties were imposed on smugglers who did not pay duty on sugar
Stamp Act To help pay for the British army in N America (7 Years War) Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 imposing a tax on all legal documents and newspapers, which now had to have an official stamp Resistance to the Stamp Act was severe in the colonies, and it was eventually repealed
Quartering Act 1765- British edict stating that to help defend the empire, colonial governments had to provide housing & food for British troops Many colonists perceived this to be the ultimate insult, forcing them to pay for the troops that were there to control the colonies
Sons of Liberty Men who organized opposition to British policies during the late 1760s and 1770s, founded in Boston in response to the Stamp Act Organized the Boston Tea Party, Sam Adams was one of their leaders
Stamp Act Congress Representatives of 9 colonies met in New York in October 1765, the document produced by the congress maintained the loyalty of the colonies to the Crown but condemned the Stamp Act The Stamp Act was repealed within one year
Declaratory Act 1766- British law stating that Parliament had an absolute
Inca Empire Advanced and wealthy civilization was centered in the Andes mountain region of South America Aided by smallpox, the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Incas in 1533
Created by: apush2014