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industrial rev

Industrial Revolution

enclosure movement when landowners fenced off common lands, many peasants had to move to towns, giving Britain a plentiful supply of labor
capital a ready supply of money
entrepreneurs found new business opportunities and new ways to make profits
cottage industry when individuals spun the tread and then wove the cloth in their rural cottages
James Watt scottish engineer, improved the steam engine in 1782
puddling a process developed by Henry Cort, coke, which was derived from coal, was used to burn away impurities in crude iron, called pig iron, and to produce an iron of high quality
Manchester a rich- cotton manufacturing town, was linked to the first true railroad
Liverpool a thriving port in Manchester
Robert Fulton built the first paddle-wheel steam boat, the Clermont, in 1807
Industrial Capitalism an economic system based on industrial production that rose during the Industrial Revolution and produced a new middle- class group- the industrial middle class
socialism an economic system, where society- usually in the form of the government- owns and controls some means of production such as factories and utilities
Robert Owen A british cotton manufacturer, was one utopian socialist
Congress of Vienna where Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia met in September 1814 to arrange a final peace settlement
Klemens von Metternich An Austrian foreign minister, was the most influential leader at the meeting in Vienna, claimed that the principle of legitimacy guided him.
conservatism based on tradition and a belief in the value of social stability
Principle of Intervention The great powers had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones
liberalism A political philosophy that grew out of the Enlightenment, held that people should be as free as possible from government restraint
Universal male suffrage all adult men could vote
Louis-Napoleon a president that was the nephew of the famous french ruler(Napoleon), and won by a resounding victory
German confederation 38 independent German states
multinational state a collection of different peoples
Prague Where the Austrian military forces crushed czech rebels in June 1848
Piedmont people began to look at this Italian state for leadership in achieving the unification of Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi A dedicated Italian patriot, who raised an arm of a thousand volunteers
militarism Reliance on military strength
Otto von Bismarck Was appointed new prime minister by William I, seen as a practitioner of real politik "politics of reality"
Alsace and Lorraine provinces that Paris gave up to the new German state
kaiser emperor
Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901 was the longes in English history, Victorian Age
Plebiscite popular vote
Budapest Capital of Hungry
Czar Alexander II decided to make some reforms in Russia
emancipation the act or process of being set free
abolitionism a movement to end slavery
secede to withdraw
Romanticism a new intelectual movement emerged as reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment
Ludwig van Beethoven one of the most famous composers of the Romanticism era
Louis Pasteur proposed a germ theory of disease
Dmitry Mandeleyev classified all the material elements then known on the basis of their atomic weights
Michael Faraday put together a primitive generator that laid the foundation for the use of electric current
Secularization indifference to or rejection of religion in the affairs of the world
Charles Darwin promoted the idea that humans are material beings who are part of the natural world
Organic evolution the basic idea of this book (On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection) was that each species, or kind, of plant and animal had evolved over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms of life.
Natural selection some organisms are born with variations, or differences, that make them ore adaptable to their environment than other organisms
Charles Dickens became a huge success with novels that showed the realities of life for the poor in the early industrial age
Created by: tessa320