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Learning Theories

TermDefinitionKey Points
Trial and Error testing various methods of achieving a goal until you find one that works slow process, intelligence of performer
Open loop theory This theory accounts well for fast continuous movements , although it does not work so well for slower movements one movement in one message, muscles perform movement,
Closed loop theory This accounts for slow movements well but not fast movements not all messages sent together, information received to initiate movement
Schema Theory All of the information needed to make a movement decision. It is stored in the brain as a long-term memory. The schema theory challenges the open and closed loop theories.the larger the motor programme, the easier it can be adapted to new situations.
Recall schema This occurs before a movement is initiated Initial conditions, Response conditions
Recognition Schema In order to correct or alter a response Movement outcomes, Sensory outcomes.
Cognitive Phase In the first stage of learning performances are inconsistent and not success is not guaranteed. large attention, need for cues, external feedback.
Associative phase Performances are becoming more consistent as motor programmes are being formed complex skill require spare attention, internal 'kinaesthetic' feedback
Autonomous phase In the final stage of learning, performances have become consistent, fluid and aesthetically pleasing. stored in long term memory, spare attention on opponents and tactics, needs constant practice to keep to this level
Operant Conditioning correct response to a task being rewarded. robot, positive and negative reinforcement, manipulation of environment
Created by: ChrisWalsh