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Chapter 12/13

The Great Depression/The New Deal

1. speculation practice of making high-risk investments in hopes of obtaining large profits
2. Black Tuesday October 29, 1929, when stock prices fell sharply in the Great Crash
3. business cycle periodic growth and contraction of the economy
4. Great Depression period lasting from 1929 to 1941 in which the U.S. economy faltered and unemployment soared
5. Hawley-Smoot Tariff protective import tax authorized by Congress in 1930
6. bread line line of people waiting for food handouts from charities or public agencies
7. Hooverville term used to describe makeshift shantytowns set up by homeless people during the Great Depression
8. tenant farmer farmers that worked for bigger landowners rather than for themselves
9. Dust Bowl term used for the central and southern Great Plains during the 1930s when the region suffered from drought and dust storms
10. Okies general term used to describe Dust Bowl refugees
11. repatriation process by which Mexican Americans were encouraged, or forced, by local, state, and federal officials to return to Mexico during the 1930s
12. localism policy relied on by President Hoover in the early years of the Depression whereby local and state governments act as a primary agents of economic relief
13. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) federal agency set up by Congress in 1932 to provide emergency government credit to banks, railroads, and other large businesses
14. trickle-down economics economic theory that holds that money lent to banks and businesses will trickle down to consumers
15. Hoover Dam dam on the Colorado River that was built during the Great Depression
16. Bonus Army group of World War I veterans who marched on Washington D.C., in 1932 to demand early payment of a bonus promised by Congress
17. New Deal programs and legislation enacted by Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression to promote economic recovery and social reform
18. fireside chats informal radio broadcasts in which FDR explained issues and New Deal programs to average Americans
20. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) government agency that insures bank deposits, guaranteeing that depositors' money will be safe
21. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) government agency that built dams in the Tennessee River valley to control flooding and generate electric power
22. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) New Deal program that provided young men with relief jobs on environmental conservation projects, including reforestation and flood control
23. National Recovery Administration (NRA) New Deal agency that promoted economic recovery by regulating production, prices, and wages
24. Public Works Administration (PWA) New Deal agency that provided millions of jobs constructing public buildings
25. Second New Deal legislative activity begun by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935 to solve problems created by the Great Depression
26. Works Progress Administration (WPA) key New Deal agency that provided work relief through various public works projects
27. pump priming economic theory that favored public works projects because they put money into the hands of consumers who would buy more goods, stimulating the economy
28. Social Security Act 1935 law that set up a pension system for retirees, established unemployment insurance, and created insurance for victims of work-related accidents; provided aid for poverty-stricken mothers and children, the blind, and the diasbled
29. Wagner Act New Deal law that abolished unfair labor practices, recognized the right of employees to organize labor unions, and gave workers the right to collective bargaining
30. collective bargaining process in which employers negotiate with labor unions about hours, wages, and other working conditions
31. Fair Labor Standards Act 1938 law that set a minimum wage, a maximum workweek of 44 hours, and outlawed child labor
32. Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) labor organization founded in the 1930s that represented unskilled industrial workers
33. sit-down strike labor protest in which workers stopped working and occupy the workplace until their demands are met
34. court packing FDR plan to add up to six new justices to the nine-member Supreme Court after the Court had ruled that some New Deal legislation was unconstitutional
35. Black Cabinet group of African American leaders who served as unofficial advisers to Franklin D. Roosevelt
36. Indian New Deal 1930s legislation that gave Indians greater control over their affairs and provided funding for schools and hospitals
37. New Deal coalition political forces formed by diverse groups who united to support Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal
38. welfare state government that assumes responsibility for providing for the welfare of the poor, elderly, sick, and unemployed
39. The Wizard of Oz one of the most memorable depression-era films
40. War of the Worlds a drama directed by Orson Welles
41. Federal Art Project division of the Works Progress Administration that hired unemployed artists to create artworks for public buildings and sponsored art-education programs and exhibitions
42. mural a large picture painted directly on a wall or ceiling
Created by: xMarinnax97