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Chapter 4 Test

Hon World History

What was the cause of the Peloponnesian War? 1. Long Range:some city-states resented Athenian dominance and joined Peloponnesian League, an alliance led by Sparta 2. Immediate:Athens and Corinth, a member of the Peloponnesian League were involved in a dispute resulting in a war between two allies
What was the strategy of the Peloponnesian War? -Athens had a strong navy-Athens planned to stay behind city walls recieving supplies from their colonies and navy-Spartan blockade Athens hoping they would send an army to fight-Plague broke out in Athens killing 1/3 pop Pericles died-Athens destroyed
Delian League led by Athens it was a defensive alliance, other city-states sent money to Athens in return for protection
Athenian Democracy limited, direct democracy, only minority classify as citizens; males above 18;assembly passed laws elected officials and made decisions about domesticated policies; office holders were paid; 10 generals were elected to direct policies
Greek Sculptures -Greeks developed a life like sculpture of male nude of ideal human form -Sculptures did not need to achieve realism but ideal beauty
Greek Philosophers 1. Sophist 2. Socrates 3. Plato 4. Aristotle
Sophist a group of traveling teachers in ancient Greece who rejected speculation; believed it was impossible for the human mind to understand the universe,more important to improve themselves; stressed the art of rhetoric (persuasive speaking)
Socrates pupil of Plato; Developed the Socrates method; believed all knowledge is already present within us we need to get it out with critical thinking; believed in individual ability of reason; questions authority put in jail for corrupting the youth&put death
Socrates Method it employed the question and answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using reason
Plato Socrates student;used the question "How do we know what is real?";wrote "The Republic";distrusted working democracy;developed his "perfect" state of classes
Plato's Classes of People Upper Class of Philosophers: Kings Second Group: Warriors Third Group: All the other people not driven by courage or wisdom but desire (societies producers artisans, tradespeople, and farmers)
Aristotle attended Plato's Academy;interest in analyzing and classifying things based on observations and investigations defined each category as logic, biology, and physics; wrote a range of sub. ethics, politics, poetry, and science; wrote a book "politics"
What was Aristotle's 3 forms of gov. 1. Monarchy 2. Aristocracy 3. Constitutional gov.
Philosophy an organized system pf thought from the Greek root word "love of wisdom"; used reason to understand human nature; early developments focused on the development of critical/rational thinking about nature & the universe
Parthenon regarded as the greatest examples of classical Greek architecture;dedicated to Athena;expression of Athenian pride in their city-state&Athena;Parthenon exemplifies the principle of classical architecture the search for calmness,clarity,&freedom
Polis The Greek word for city state, the basic political unit of Greece; the town surrounding the country
Homer wrote the first epic poems; wrote the Iliad & the Odyssey; he did not record history he created it and gave the Greeks an ideal past
Epic Poem tells the qualities admired by Greeks such as bravery, honor and dignity
Illiad epic poem about the Trojan War; about Achilles and how his anger led to disaster
Odyssey tells about Odysseus adventures back home after Trojan War
Arete Greek word for excellence which was worn through a physical or mental struggle 1. in a fight 2. a hero preserves his honor and that of his family 3. earns his rep.
Hubris excessive pride which can bring downfall
Geography of Greece -Mountains:caused the Greeks to live in independent citystates, isolated by mountains-Seas:the Greeks will become expert sailors travel to Mediterranean,Adriatic,Aegean, and Black Seas(navy almost unstoppable)-Climate:mild climate encouraged outdoor games
Created by: sossenkopp