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Important Figures in Planning History

William Penn Laid out the City of Philidelphia grid pattern with 5 public squares in "Holy Experiment" (1682)
Alexander Hamilton Report of Manufacturers. Protective tariffs for manufacturing industry as a means of promoting industrial development in the young republic (1791)
Henry Clay Speech in front of Congress - a plan called the "American System" = allocate funds to promote development of the national economy by combining tariffs with internal improvements (roads, canals, waterways) (1818)
Frederick Law Olmsted/Calvert Vaux Planned Riverside, Illinois community (1868). Created Central Park in NYC. Prospect Park, Brooklyn. "Father of Landscape Architecture"
John Wesley Powell "Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States". = foster settlement of the arid west and conserve water resources. (1878)
Henry George "Progress and Poverty". Argues to diminish the extremes of national wealth and poverty through a single land tax that would capture the "unearned increment" of national development for public uses. (1879)
George Pullman Built Pullman, Illinois = model industrial town (1880-1884) (planned community)
Jacob Riis "How the Other Half Lives" and "Children of the Poor" - about housing and neighborhood reform. (1890) He wrote about slums and poor living conditions in NY, which led to first federal investigation of slum conditions and housing reform.
John Muir Founded the Sierra Club (1892), American-Scottish naturalist. Leader in American environmentalism.
Ebenezer Howard (need more) "Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform" (1898) - inspired the Garden City Movement. Later reissued in 1902 as "Garden Cities of Tomorrow". Advocated garden cities concept as means of correcting economic and social problems within cities.
Gifford Pinchot Chief Forester of the US Dept. of Agriculture - forest conservation (1898). First professionally-trained forester.
Lawrence Veiller Worked for housing reform. Authored "Housing Reform" and drafted the New York State Tenement House Law (1901). Outlawed poor housing conditions like that under the "Dumbell Tenements".
Lewis Mumford “the last of the great humanists.” Contributions to literary criticism, archit criticism, city history, tech, regional planning, envirmtlism, public life in America. First book, The Story of Utopias (1922). Last book, his autobio Sketches from Life (1982)
Patrick Geddes "Father of Regional Planning". Mentor of Lewis Mumford. Published "Cities in Evolution". (1915)
Nelson P. Lewis Published "Planning of the Modern City" (1916)
Ernest Burgess Urban sociologist. Introduction to the Science of Sociology (Park & Burgess, 1921). Created Concentric Zone Model. Method of Unit-Weighted Regression. Predicting the success or failure of inmates on parole.
Clarence Stein Clarence Stein studied architecture at Columbia University and the École des Beaux-Arts. He worked in the office of Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, where he assisted in the planning of the San Diego World's Fair (1915). Co-designed Radburn, NJ. NY Housing Comm
Clarence Stein (cont.) With Lewis Mumford and Henry Wright, a founding member of the Regional Planning Association of America - imported Ebenezer Howard's garden city idea from England to the US. Stein and Wright collaborated on Radburn, NJ (1928–32) - superblock layout.
Alexander Bing
Edward Bassett Edward Murray Bassett (1863-1948) chaired the commission that produced New York City's landmark 1916 zoning code plan. "Father of Zoning"
Clarence Perry Monograph on the Neighborhood Unit published in Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs in 1929. Advocated the concept of neighborhood unity.
Rexford Tugwell Est the Resettlement Admin. Roosevelt's "braintruster" - built the Greenbelt Towns - devised a plan to resettle Depression-era poor in new towns - Greenbelt, MD; Greenhills, OH; and Greendale, WI. NYC planning director and as gov of Puerto
Kevin Lynch Kevin Lynch was a professor at MIT. His most famous work, Image of the City, was published in 1960 and the result of a five-year study on how people perceive and organize spatial info as they navigate through cities (nodes, edges, districts, paths).
Jane Addams 1889. Helped remedy the problems of industrialization and urbanization by founding Hull House - a Chicago settlement house. Enticed educated middle class people to move to poor urban areas, for the purpose of educating and assisting the impoverished.
Mary Simkhovitch 1867-1951: social worker who worked for housing reform. Founded Greenwich House - a Greenwich Village Settlement House.
Catherine Bauer Wurster 1905-1964. Authored "Modern Housing" which advocated public housing.
Norman Krumholz Held the position of planning director in Cleveland from 1969-1979. he advocated "equity planning", which attempted to help poor, minority residents, and others whose housing choices were very limited.
George Perkins Marshall Is often credited with starting the conservation movement. His seminal work, Man and Nature (1864), examined humankind's harmful impact on the environment.
Theodore Roosevelt 26th US President, supported the conservation movement and created inland waterway commission, which encouraged waterway planning that incorporated multiple uses.
William Whyte Conducted one of the first studies on conservation easements. His book, The Last Landscape (1959), was the first book that used the word "greenway". Wrote "The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces" = environmental psychology/sociology were important in desig
Rachel Carson Wrote Silent Spring (1962), a book that explored the harmful effects of pesticides on plans and animals.
Paul Davidoff Paul Davidoff (1930-1984) founded the Suburban Action Institute in 1969. The institute repeatedly challenged exclusionary zoning in the courts, winning a notable success in the case involving the town of Mt. Laurel, New Jersey.
Henry Wright (1878-1936) an architect and advocate of the garden city movement. He worked with Clarence Stein in the 1920s on Sunnyside Gardens in Queens, NY and Radburn in Fairlawn, NJ. Sunnyside Gardens = one of earliest developments w/ "superblock" model
Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennet 1909. Created the Chicago Plan, which integrated aspects of monumental city design and the city beautiful movement by creating waterfront parks and outstanding civic buildings.
Le Corbusier 1920. Advocated modernism in urban design - arterial strees in large-scale grids, high-rise towers located on superblocks, and a designated separate zone for each land use (gov, factory, and commercial). He proposed the "Radiant City" model.
Le Corbusier - Radiant City model The Radiant City model incorporated high-density living and working areas and an abundance of surrounding park space.
Frank Lloyd Wright 1932. Advocated low-density, decongested development that would make prominent use of automobiles. He wrote Disappearing City, in which he proposed Broadacre City where every home had at least one acre of land with at least one care.
Louis Wirth 1938. Wrote Urbanism as a Way of Life. Proposed that development density affected people's behavior and relationships.
James Rouse 1950. Developed the type of urban design found in indoor shopping malls; 1960 - built a Columbia, MD planned comm using a colonial village archetype and renovated downtowns of Baltimore's Inner Harbor, NY's South Street Seaport, and Boston's Fanueil Hall.
Jane Jacobs 1961. Her book explains the manner in which sidewalks, land uses, user orientation, etc. all contribute to urban design. She claimed vibrant urban design incorporates mixed land uses, short blocks, and a walkable scale = increased activity and safety.
Paulo Soleri 1960s. Cities should be planned as a single building consisting of mega-structures partially underground = this would create minimal disturbance within nature (eco friendly). Mega-structures could house all land use needs. Ex. - Arizona = Arcosanti.
Robert Lang 2002. Wrote "Edgeless Cities", which became the predominant urban form. It features large suburban office complexes that are not accessible by foot or public transit.
Allen Jacobs 1985. SF planner who authored "Making City Planning Work", explained the necessity for bringing about change in cities. In 1995, he wrote Great Streets - examines and discusses the characteristics and features of the world's best streets.
Andres Duany Promoted new urbanism and neotraditional design in planning. Seaside, Florida (mixed-use, high density, grid pattern, rear entrance parking, small setbacks, small blocks).
Joel Garreau 1991. "Edge Cities" - an edge city is a place that had few features resembling city design 30 years ago. Edge City = a leasable office space of 5 million sf or more; and an amount of available jobs that exceeds the number of bedrooms in the comm.
Ian McHarg "Father of Modern Environmental Policy" or "Father of Modern Ecology/Environmental Movement". He wrote "Design With Nature". MD - idea to use Transfer of Development Rights to preserve landscape. Laid the foundation for GIS.
Raymond Unwin Focused on improvement to working class housing. Wrote "The Art of Building a Home" (1901).
Robert Moses The Great Expediter. "If the ends don't justify the means, then what the hell does?" Lead city planning in the 1920s
Igor Ansoff "Father of Strategic Planning" From San Diego. Wrote "Corporate Strategic Planning" (1965).
Created by: jlongabaugh
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