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Housing, Transp, NU
Housing, Transportation and New Urbanism (1980s - 1990s)
|"Regan Revolution" begins. Planning profession challenged to adapt to new (counter-New Deal) policies: reduced federal domestic spending, privatization, deregulation, etc. Phase-out of some earlier aids to planning (e.g. sewer grants and Title V Regions).
|The US Supreme Court finds in Central Hudson v. Public Service Commission that for a regulation involving first amendment right to survive, it must 1) advance a compelling state interest, 2) allow a reasonable alternative means of communication
|Central Hudson v. Public Service Commission (cont.)
|3) is as narrowly defined as possible, and 4) is a reasonable time, place, and manner restriction.
|Superfund Bill passed. (Comprehensive Response, Compensation and Liability Act). Creates liability for persons discharging hazardous waste into the environment. Taxes polluting industries to establish a trust fund for the cleanup of polluted sites.
|Agins v. City of Tiburon - makes clear that a regulation that is not reasonably related to the police power and causes a property to lose all economic value constitutes a taking.
|The Associated Collegiate Schools of Planning (ACSP)is established to represent the academic branch of the planning profession.
|Metromedia v. City of San Diego. US Supreme Court hold that neither commercial nor non-commercial speech can be favored over the other. The ordinance was overturned because it effectively banned non-commercial signs.
|ACSP issues Vol. 1, No. 1 of The Journal of Education and Planning Research.
|Loretto v. Teleprompter Manhattan CATV Corp. - physical invasion of property is a taking.
|In a second case focusing on Mt. Laurel, New Jersey, the New Jersey Supreme Court rules that all 567 municipalities in the state must build their "fair share" of affordable housing. A precedent-setting blow against racial segregation.
|Members of City Council v. Taxpayers for Vincent - US SC upheld a regulation that prohibited the attaching of signs to utility poles. The Court found that the regulation met all the tests mentioned under Central Hudson, above.
|Construction begins on Seaside, Florida, one of the earliest examples of New Urbanism (Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk). Unlike most earlier planned communities, the New Urbanism emphasizes urban features - compactness, walkability, mixed-use.
|New Urbanism (1984) cont.
|Seaside, Florida and other New Urbanism planned communities promoted a nostalgic architectural style reminiscent of the traditional urban neighborhood. The movement has links to the anti-sprawl movement and the smart growth movement.
|City of Cleburne v. Cleburn Living Center - US SC ruled that ordinance that does treat different groups unequally, but doesn't involve a fundamental right or group that gained protection under Vil. of Arlington Heights (1977) - pass rational basis test.
|City of Renton v. Playtime Theaters. US Supreme Court allowed zoning ordinance limiting sexually-oriented businesses to 5% of the municipal land area to stand based on a study conducted on the negative effects the business type has on surrounding areas.
|The First National Conference on American Planning History is convened in Columbus, Ohio and leads to the founding of the Society of American City and Regional Planning Hisotry (SACRPH) the following year.
|In First English Evangelical Lutheran Church v. County of Los Angeles, US Supreme Court finds that even a temporary taking requires compensation. In Nollan case, it finds that land-use restrictions, to be valid, must be tied to a specific public purpose.
|The Planning Accreditation Board (PAB) is recognized by the Washington-based Council on Post Secondary Education to be the sole accrediting agency in the field of professional planning education.
|The US Supreme Court considered the relationship of regulation and religion in two cases. Cohen v. Des Planes and Oregon v. Smith
|Cohen v. Des Planes (1990)
|The US SC ruled that zoning cannot be used to grant religious institutions advantages over other commercial uses. The Court overturned a zoning provision that allowed a church to run a day care in a residential zone where no one else could do so.
|Oregon v. Smith (1990)
|Second case. Court ruled that zoning that is neutral on its face was permissible so long as it doesn't hinder the religion itself. This particular case upheld a ban on the use of peyote in Native American religious services.
|Passage of Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) includes provisions for a national Scenic Byways Program and for transportation enhancements, each of which includes a historic preservation component.
|In Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, the US Supreme Court limits local and state governments' ability to restrict private property without compensation.
|Enterprise Zone/ Empowerment Community (EZ/EC) signed into law. Tax incentives, wage tax credits, special deductions, and low-interest financing to a limited number of impoverished urban and rural communities to jumpstart their economic/social recovery.
|In Dolan v. City of Tigard, the US Supreme Court rules that a jurisdiction must show that there is a "rough proportionality" between the adverse impacts of a proposed development and the exactions is wishes to impose on the developer.
|North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) among US, Canada and Mexico begins on Jan. 1. Purpose - to foster trade and investment among the three nations by removing or lowering non-tariff as well as tariff barriers.
|American Institute of Certified Planners inaugurates a College of Fellows to recognize distinguished individual contributions by longer term AICP members.
|Clinton creates 8 new national monuments in 5 western states: Canyons of the Ancients (CO); Cascade-Siskiyou (OR); Hanford Reach (WA); Ironwood Forest, Grand Canyon-Parashant, Agua Fria (AZ); Grand Sequoia, California Coast (CA). Expanded Pinnacles (CA).
|The NY World Trade Center and the Pentagon are attacked by terrorists - Rethink security measures, including design changes to protect the public from future attacks. Bollards, large planters, and retractable barricades are installed around public blds.
|Sierra v. Tahoe - US Supreme Court rules that a temporary building moratorium for the purpose of conducting planning studies to protect the public health, safety, welfare and morals is a legitimate use of police power and does not constitute a taking.
|Seven major hurricanes impact the southeastern US during the busiest hurricane seasons on record to date - billions of $$ damage and lives lost. Prompts a comprehensive review of emergency preparedness, floodplain and coastal development, and security.
|Kelo v. City of New Haven - US SC upholds the decades-old practice of utilizing urban redevelopment and eminent domain for economic development purposes when such actions are backed by a redevelopment plan that underwent a full plan development process.
|The fluctuation in petroleum prices caused by the War on Terror, the hurricanes of 2005, and other factors start a debate on the sustainability of a petroleum-based society/lifestyle, and serious discussions on renewable resources.