Normal Size Small Size show me how
Federal Interventions (1930s - 1950s)
|National Land Utilization Conference convened in Chicago. Three hundred agricultural experts deliberate on rural recovery programs and natural resource conservation.
|Federal Home Loan Bank System established to shore up shaky home financing institutions.
|In Bove v. Donner-Hanna Coke Corp, the court ruled that an owner cannot make use of his property if it creates a material annoyance to his neighbor or if his neighbor's property or life is materially lessened by the use.
|Reconstruction Finance Corporation established at the outset of the Great Depression to revive economic activity by extending financial aid to failing financial industrial, and agricultural institutions.
|FDR inaugurated. New Deal begins with a spate of counter-depression measures.
|Home Owners Loan Corporation established to save homeowners facing loss through foreclosure.
|The National Planning Board established in the Interior Department to prepare a comprehensive plan for public works under Frederick Delano, Charles Merriam, Weslye MItchell. Its last succesor agency = National Resources Planning Board, ablished in 1943.
|Civilian Conservation Corps established to provide work for unemployed youth and to conserve the national's natural resources.
|Federal Emergency Relief Administration set up under Harry Hopkins to organize relief work in urban and rural areas.
|Tennessee Valley Authority created to provide for unified and multipurpose rehabilitation and redevelopment of the Tennessee Valley, America's most famous experiment in river-basin planning. Senator George Norris of Nebraska fathered the idea.
|The Agricultural Adjustment Act is passed to regulate agricultural trade practices, production, prices, supply areas (and therefore land use) as a recovery measure.
|American Society of Planning Officials founded, an organization for planners, planning commissioners and planning-related public officials.
|National Housing Act. Established FSLIC for insuring savings deposits and the FHA for insuring individual home mortgages.
|Taylor Grazing Act is passed. Its purpose is to regulate the use of the range in the West for conservation purposes.
|"Final Report" by the National Planning Board on its first year. Includes a section "A Plan for Planning" and an account of the "Historical Dev. of Planning in the US". The latter views planning history in the context of US political and economic history.
|Resettlement Administration established under Rexford Tugwell, Roosevelt's "braintruster", to carry out experiments in land reform and population resettlement.
|3 Greenbelt Towns constructed/designed under the Resettlement Administration in 1935
|Greenbelt, Maryland; Greendale, Wisconsin; Greenhills, Ohio. These were forerunners of the present-day New Towns: Columbia, Maryland; Reston, Virginia; etc.
|Publication date of the "Regional Factors in National Planning" by the National Resources Committee, a landmark in regional planning literature.
|Soil Conservation Act. Congress moves to make prevention of soil erosion a national responsibility.
|The Historic Sites, Buildings and Antiquities Act (a predecessor of the National Historic Preservation Act) passed. Requires the Secretary of the Interior to identify, acquire, and restore qualifying historic sites and properties.
|Implications of The Historic Sites, Buildings and Antiquities Act
|Federal agencies should consider preservation in their programs and plans.
|Social Security Act passed to create a safety net for elderly. Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor and first woman cabinet member, was a principal promoter.
|Congress authorizes construction of the Grande Coulee Dam in Central Washington State. Finished in 1941, it is the largest concrete structure in the US and the heart of the Columbia Basin Project - a regional plan comparable in its scope to TVA.
|Purposes of Grande Coulee Dam and Columbia Basin Project
|Irrigation, electric power generation, and flood control in the Pacific Northwest
|Hoover Dam on the Colorado River completed. Creates and sustains population growth and industrial development in Nevada, California, and Arizona.
|"Our Cities: Their Role in the National Economy". A landmark report by the Urbanism Committee of the National Resources Committee - Ladislas Segoe headed research staff.
|US Housing Act (Wagner-Steagall). Set the stage for future government aid by appropriating $500 million in loans for low-cost housing. Tied slum clearance to public housing.
|Farm Security Administration established, successor to the Resettlement Administration and administrator of many programs to aid the rural poor.
|1938 (American Institute of Planners)
|AIP - "the planning of the unified development of urban communities and their environs, and of states, regions and the nation, as expressed through determination of the comprehensive arrangement of land uses and land occupancy and the regulation thereof."
|Homer Hoyt's influential "sector theory" of urban growth appears in his monograph, "The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities."
|"Local Planning Administration", by Ladislas Segoe, first of "Greek Book" series, appears.
|Robert Walker's "Planning Function in Urban Government" published
|Bretton Woods (New Hampshire) Agreement. The US and allies meet to establish the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank).
|Serviceman's Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill). Guaranteed loans for homes to veterans under favorable terms, thereby accelerating the growth of suburbs.
|Housing and Home Financing Agency (predecessor of HUD) created to coordinate federal government's various housing programs.
|Construction of Park Forest, Illinois, and Levittown, New York, began.
|Secretary George C. Marshall uses his Harvard College commencement address to propose the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of postwar Europe.
|Housing Act (Wagner-Ellender-Taft Bill). First US comprehensive housing legislation. Aimed to construct about 800,000 units. Inaugurated urban redevelopment program.
|The National Trust for Historic Preservation is created and chartered by Congress.
|In Berman v. Parker, US Supreme Court upholds right of Washington DC. Redevelopment Land Agency to condemn properties that are unsightly, though non-deteriorated, if required to achieve objectives of a duly established area redevelopment plan.
|Housing Act of 1954. Stressed slum prevention and urban renewal rather than slum clearance and urban redevelopment as the 1949 act. Also stimulated general planning for cities under 25,000 people by providing funds under Section 701 of the act.
|Residual effects of Housing Act of 1954
|"701 funding" later extended by legislative amendments to foster statewide, interstate, and substate regional planning.
|The Council of Government movement (COGS) begins in Detroit with the formation of a Supervisor's Inter-County Committee composed of representatives of each county in southeastern Michigan to confront areawide problems. This spread nationwide.
|Congress passes multi-billion dollar Federal Aid Highway Act to create interstate highway system linking all state capitals and most cities of 50,000 people or more.
|F. Stuart Chapin publishes "Urban Land Use Planning"
|A "Multiple Land Use Classification System" (A. Guttenberg) published in the Journal of American Institute of Planners. The first approach to the definition of land-use classifications in multidimensional terms.