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American Hist tst 2
|Lots of people immigrating from
|Scotland, Ireland, and Germany. (Irish were the lowest in class).
|Women and family life. How old were women when they were married off?
|William Byrd II of Westover commented that the most “antique Virgin” that he knew was his 20 year old daughter. Married by early 20’s. 6 or 7 kids by early 40’s. Majority of church attendees.
|Prosecution ratio for inheritance imbalance for wealthy women
|your husband had complete control of your riches. Heavy burden of work.
|A New Social Identity
|Got a new social identity because of property. Property=authority and control over others. Children are always under control of man. Marriage= contract (legal). Sex and marriage- man can have sex with other but women can’t .
|What did houses look like then?
|most people live in a 1 or 2 bedroom house. Very basic. Benches. Wooden platters and cups.
|Crime and outwork system
|the price of land goes up! Crime rose sharply after 1720. Wafes- boys in wafes. No one takes care of them and so they stay in groups. Outwork system- not very many people are employed in farms ect…
|Societies not melting pots
|very different divisions of societies.
|How the British Isles affected areas in America
|1) accent relates back to where you originally came from. Get accents because came largely from the same regions. 2) Persistence of disparate (separate) British ways of life. 3) Dialects 4) Distinct regions. 5) different food they eat in diffe
|rent areas. 6) names 7) Educational philosophies 8) Architecture is built a little different because of where they came from in British Isles. 9) Recreation. 10) Organization
|Tide water aristocracy
|by 18th century (in the 1700’s), VA and SC moving into the golden ages of the Tidewater gentry. Develop high class people running things. Imitate chivalry like in round table.
|Old religious antagonisms
|Benjamin Franklin believed in separation of church and state. Everyone should not have to worship the same way. French forts bases for conquest. French in the land and so is the Spanish.
|The Age of Enlightenment
|the century stretching from the lat seventeeth to the late eighteenth century when generations of euorpean writers, scientists, and philosophers began to question the
|predominance of organized religion and elevate the use of rational argument and scientific investigation.
|were very disciplined soldiers. Corporal punishment was very popular (lashes). Irregular warfare with the Indians behind trees made the redcoats nervous. They were so used to fighting in lines and walking towards each other to fight.
|What did the Redcoats think of the provincial soldiers in America?
|the provincial soldiers discipline is bad. The locals had lots of local knowledge about the lay out of the land but were undisciplined.
|The French were nice to the Indians
|with the idians help, they built French posts that contained the English colonists from expanding.
|Defeat at Fort Duquesne. How many British killed? French and Indian?
|977 British killed or wounded. 39 French and Indians killed or wounded. Indians are getting edged out of hunting grounds. What choice did the Indians have to make? Whose side should they pick?
|A French and Indian force ambushed Braddock’s column in the forest near Fort Duequesne, cutting it to pieces in the most thorough defeat of the century for a British army unit.
|Frontier War in Pennsylvania. Who was Marquis de Montcalm?
|French fighting English for control of land. Land = wealth. Have live oak trees, tar, pine that they want. Indians are horrified by the brutality of frontier warfare. For William Henry. Indian allies killed or carried off 308 of the 2,300 prisoners.
|What did the British think of the Americans?
|British thought that Americans were scum and had no love for American soldiers. Americans wanted nothing to do with the Brits. There is a separation here! Neither one understands the other.
|Quartering the troops
|this was a BIG ISSUE that led up to American Revolution! Letting troops into your home and can stay at their house and eat their food. Use their candles.
|The Peace of Paris. (Get more info!!)
|this ended the French and Indian War, part of a far broader conflict known as the 7 year war. ended the war. War ended in 1763. France surrendered to GB all of her territory east of the Mississippi. Got a big chunk of land.
|Road to Revolution
|Army stays after 1763. Taxes for upkeep. 1760 George III (22) and he had medical issues. He had incompetent advisors he always took advice from.
|Why should Americans pay British soldiers to defend them from French and Indians attacking to take back territory?
|British sent troops to protect them. Only pay a fraction of that for protection. Wanted to not pay taxes but wanted all the benefits.
|George II had bad advisors. Lots of money to keep the army going. Britain’s national debt was staggering!! 60% of income come went out of London to pay interest.
|The Sugar ACT 1764
|duties on win,e coffee, and sugar.
|The Quartering Act of 1765
|quarter soldiers in private homes. Colonials to supply army with beer, candles, etc. People who don’t like British and want out no matter what- Samuel Adams
|The Stamp Act of 1765
|newspapers, legal documents, pamphlets, playing cards etc. Virtual representation (wanted to have someone represent them in Britain). All 13 colonial assemblies drafted petitions objecting to the Stamp Act.
|Agreed that the colony ought to contribute to its own defense. England said no! The British originally set the price of stamps LOWER than it
|was in England so that the colonists could get used to this tax before they raised it. The colonists still did not like this!
|Virginia House of Burgesses
|Virginia was the most important state politically.
|Who was Patrick Henry?
|he was a rising attorney who was an American resistant to the Stamp Act. Henry introduced a series of resolves challenging Parliament’s right to impose taxes. The 28 year old orator gained narrow passage of 5
|separate resolutions. Henry’s fifth and most provocative resolve asserted that Virginia’s assembly had the “sole exclusive right and power to lay taxes” on the colony’s inhabitants.
|Opposition to the Stamp Act
|Patrick Henry from VA. “Give me liberty or give me death.”
|What do the colonies think of the Stamp Act?
|8 Colonial legislatures condemn the Stamp Act. Stamp Act Congress say is unconstitutional idea of virtual representation is ridiculed by them.
|Son’s of Liberty
|Boston based. Violent and destructive. Stamp Act nullified by violence. Trouble makers (rough people) were leading this in the Boston massacre.
|non violent resistance! merchants adopted nonimporation agreement. They did not buy anything from England. A powerful political weapon. A visible demonstration they were for the Revolution. Like they would make their own clothing. Don’t buy any tea.
|The Declaratory Act
|Parliament had full authority to make laws and enforce them on the colonies.
|What was done about the stamp act?
|the stamp act was repealed. Once that was repealed the colonists wanted more!
|Revenue Act of 1766
|reduced the duty on Molasses.
|After the nonimportation act, what did Britain do?
|Britain was losing far more revenue in colonial trade than it was gaining through the expanded customs duties. Soon, influential British exporters were pressing their government
|for relief. Lord North persuaded Parliament to repeal all the Townshend Duties except the one on tea. The move defused the colonial boycott, but it offered too little, too late, Like the earlier Declaratory Act, this measure
|re reaffirmed Parliament’s disputed right to tax the colonists at will.
|There were protesters against the stamp act. Prominent citizens had started to organize themselves in secret groups which they called
|the Sons of Liberty. The crowds forced the resignation of potential stamp distributors in ports from New Hampshire to the Carolinas.
|Sons of liberty promoted
|street violence against specific targets.
|Why did England make more taxes on America?
|after the & year war, the colonists in North America were part of the world’s largest empire. Soon, their allegiance to the empire started to gase as Parliamen in Lodon sought ways to pay for the
|expensive war by imposing various revenue taxes on American colonists across the Atlantic. Colonists began to protest that Parliament’s actions violated their rights as British subject and the famous cary
|“No Taxation without Representation!” echoed in the 13 colonies.
|Christian Conestoga Indians Massacred
|settlers demand an increase in protection.
|Gen Amherst promoted
|the spread of small pox on the Indians and had a no prisoner policy. Don’t have enough food to feed the prisoners.
|Sons/Daughters of Liberty attacked the home of what British officer?
|attacked the home of Lt Governor Thomas Hutchinson. Because Hutchinson served as chief justice of the Superior Court, he had offended townspeople by issuing nermous warrants for debtors and collecting large
|fees for administering bankruptcies. THIS ACT WAS WITHOUT THE PERMISSION OF THE SON’S OF ANARCHY! The mob did this on their own.
|The Virginia resolves
|Patrick Henry writes them. (Virginia should solely be able to tax the people? Not the crown?)
|the colonists did not like virtual representation.
|Taxation without consent= slavery. But Virginia has lots of slaves for the tobacco business. They are the real slaves. Claim would only be legitimate if they released their slaves!
|Townshend Revenue Act of 1767
|Glass, paint, lead, papers, tea. In search of funds, Parliament passed the Townshend Revenue Act. It obliged colonists to pay duties on imported glass, paint, lead, paper, and tea.
|Press gangs and impressment
|British officers take sailors from American merchant and naval ships to serve in the Royal Navy for sometimes 13 years.
|Boycotts by the Sons/Daughters of Liberty
|don’t wear nice things. You make your own things. Love your country more.
|British trade and protests
|damage to trade and shipping. Damaging British and American trade as well.
|The Tea Act of 1773
|The Boston Tea Party. Sons of liberty. British said Americans had to buy this certain tea (that was actually cheaper) But people who had money tied up on other tea did not like that. They dressed up as Indians (The s
|Son’s of Liberty did) and dumped it. 5,000 people meet in Boston’s Old South Church. About 10,000 pounds worth of tea was dumped. Tea was very expensive! Going against something unfair! TURNING POINT!
|General Thomas Gage
|(British). He says, “The Crisis is come.” Britain underestimates Am. Resolve.
|4 Coercive Acts passed
|Port of Boston closed (food and firewood) until people of Boston paid back the tea that was destroyed. People are outraged and they start sending food to Boston to keep them going as long as possible.
|Massachussets Government Act
|removed democratic elements from the longastanding Massachusetts Charter of 1691. From now on, the assembly could no longer elect the colony’s Upper house, or Council. Instead, the governo
|r would appoint council members, and any locality would need his written permission to hold a town meeting.
|First Continental Congress
|In September 1774, 56 delegates convened in Philadelphia. vast difference in opinions and regional views that differed on how to respond to the intolerable acts. Southern moderates urged caution.
|Congress issued a Declaration of Rights. By the time the Congress adjourned in late October, it had issued a Declaration of Rights
|and passed a range of measures that
|seemed to balance competing views. They thought Parliamen’ts Coercive Acts were unconstitutional and spoke of preparation for war. And they also humbly petitioned the king for relief from the crisis and professed continued loyalty.
|Fiery Suffolk Resolves
|while humbly asking the king for relief. Professed continued loyalty to the corwn. Majority of people are still professing loyalty.
|British order secret orders to arrest leaders of the Massachusetts’s Provincial Congress
|British sent 700 elite troops to Lexington and Concord. “One if by land and two if by Sea.” (lanterns). 400 minute men stream in. (minute men were men ready to fight at any minute. They did not
|have a standing army). The shot heard ‘round the world killed two Americans. Exhausted Redcoats retreat. British retreat to Bunk Hill, but soon returned to Boston.
|British views of Americans at this time
|American were ungrateful, intemperate, and paranoid. The colonists saw Parliament and King as uninformed, selfish, and deceitful. Complete distance between these thoughts. Neither side now what each other are going through.
|Colonists overcome regional and ethic differences
|have to liberate slaves, Indians, and women if say “Freedom and liberty for all” Or try to get European support (like the French) by not liberating blacks. Had two choices! Picked the latter. (French hated the British).
|The Continental Army. How long do enlisters serve and how much do they get paid?
|signed up for 12 months enlistment. This was a long time! Who will take care of the farms while they are gone? Want to do something for their country. 3 years= $20 dollars. Duration= sometimes they were given land.
|230,000 (1/4 of white males). There were 20,000 camp followers. Took care of the soldiers laundry and food. Women, children, wives follow. If white don’t want to fight, then they send their black slave. (5,000). People fight for liberty and freedom.
|The Continental Army’s Goals
|after the battle of Lexington, they made a continental army. Their goal was to force British out of Boston and to pull Canada into the rebellion. They also wanted the help of the French Catholics of Quebec into their revolt
|People from Britain think service= and refusal=
|service= politicization and refusal = traitor. Saw Americans that go to war as raw and undisciplined.
|what is the best way to quell a rebellion? Defeat vs ongoing rebellion. Wanted to go to the political nerve center, Boston. Tea party. Closed Boston port. Ports 5% of population.
|The British needed to
|restore government. Should they ravage the countryside? Consifscate food, burnings? But is that a good idea? No! Resentment. They will have to live with these people and cooperate with them after the war.
|Who were the loyalists?
|those who remained loyal to England. They had to go to Canada. A lot of loyalists came from NY.
|Quebec, NY and NJ. Americans want Montreal and Quebec because it is under Britain
|they think people in Canada will welcome them. Canada likes things the way they are. New Yorkers take Montreal. Arnold to Quebec. American have to withdraw. *They meant to seize Quebec and win Canada.
|In August of 1776 Brits and Hessians land in NYC
|45,000 Brits and Hessians. Britain bringing mercenaries into the fight.
|What is the American reaction?
|Washington leads 20,000 of not well trained men from Massachusetts. The Battle of Long Island. Washington retreats. How takes Fort Washtington and Ft Lee and 3,000.
|The Battle of Long Island
|General Howe (British) moved his troops by water and outflanked and scattered
|the poorly trained Americans in the Battle of Long Island. Remarkably, the British leader called off a direct attack that would overrun the American batteries on. Under cover of night, rebel troops slipped back across the East River to NYC in sm
|all boats. (BRITAIN UNDERSTIMATED THEM!)
|Washington’s narrow escape from Long Island was the first of numerous retreats. The rebels withdrew from
|Fort Washington and Fort Lee.
|December 25, Washington crosses Delaware
|New Jersey for the winter. Reluctance of British troops. He surprises the Hessians (who were supposed to be great soldiers). They don’t think anyone will attack on Christmas. They are drunk. Gives country a BIG boost in moral.
|Son’s of Liberty= mob. They decide safety, boycottes, draftees, and who is traitors. Mob mentality. Invading loyalists homes. Increase in the power of the patriots. “Neutrality” not an option! Th
|e patriots have this mentality. They inspect everything! If you buy tea, or if women buying cloth from England (look at women’s petticoats).
|have strong cultural ties to England. Cultural stability in England in monarchy and aristocracy. If they did not flee they would have their property confiscated. 7,000 to 8,000 Loyalists
|going to England. 28,000 to Canada. 3,000 in NJ swear loyalty to Britain. If you could not afford to leae, then you should stay low.
|unscrupulous, violent, and self interested.
|officials/ merchants/ lawyers. A lot of the educated class are Tories. 1774-76. Tories are most vocal. There are educated people in patriots (like the Founding Fathers).\
|British generals sent out
|all had arrogance. They were the greatest army and the Americans were a bunch of untrained men. They thought they could not be defeated.
|plans to capture Albany. Brings along 7,800 men. 1,000 followers. 400 Indians
|and 400 horses. So vain, so short sighted. Thought he would win. He became isolated because he did not know the land. Reinforcements did not come and supplies began to dwindle. Men deserted.
|What American beats General Burgyoyne?
|Horatio Gates won this battle!
|Washington’s battered army too up winter quarters where?
|nearby Valley Forge. VERY cold! Over 6 months, 2,000 die and 2,000 desert (people are not getting their money). People are not getting paid. Bad rumors spreading about Washington.
|Benjamin Franklin in France trying to get French help. Feb 1778 alliance. Americans will not have victory on their own. They would not have the money or equipment. Needed the French Navy.
|King George II and victory. The land was so big and their army was spread thin over land.
|Where do the British focus on?
|The Brits focus on South because such large number of loyalists there. 3,000 loyalists captured. Cornwallis in South Caroline and 3,000 loyalists captured.
|(traitor to American country) secret negotiations with General Clinton to hand over West Point. Benedict was commander of West Point. He had victories but other people took the credit for what he did. He became bitter because he didn’t get credit.
|Cornwallis to Yorktown
|troops expected. French troops join Washington. MAJOR TURNING
|POINT IN WAR IN YORK TOWN) Because French ships get there and support Washington. French ships arrive BEFORE the Brittish ships do. CornWallis stays inside and send subordinate out to hand sword over. He is disgraced.
|5 day naval battle
|no rescue of Cornwallis. Surrender Oct 19, 1781. 2 more years of skirmishes but that was it. Peace treaty took 6 month to negotiate.
|The Treaty of Paris, Sept 3 1783
|decide on terms. The treaty ignored the Indians.
|Colonial expansion brought on new confrontations with Europeans, Africans, and Indians. Interaction between colonials, Indians, and blacks was like babel
|Babel from the Old Testament. These people had to rub shoulders in unprecedented ways. Some interactions turned
|out to have verbal misunderstandings, competing claims, harsh commands, or open violence. Everywhere motives differed, accents jarred, and cultures clashed.
|An American Babel. America was known as? How many people lived in America in 1720? 1765?
|the best poor man’s country. In 1720- 400,000 people. 1765- 2 million.