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History Chapter 3

History Test Chapter 3 Islam

oasis small area in desert that is watered by springs or wells
Ubar destroyed by collapse of underground reservoir- found lost city- had trade route and Frankincense
Arabs Many different tribes that feuded- believed in one God, hanif
nomads herders- travel from oasis to oasis- traded milk and meat for carpets and weapons
tribes lived in close groups
idols made to represent sons and daughters of God
Nomadic life Spoke Arabic- farmers provided food- believed in a creator and lesser gods that influenced life
trade and merchants merchants a lot of trade- some became scholars or judges- some stayed- sea linked many trade routes
Petra Northwest corner peninsula-means rock
Mecca only for Muslims, holy city of Islam, fresh wells, routes stretch north and south
Quraysh tribe that takes car of Kaaba
suq big marketplace
Kabba built 4,000 years ago, house of worship for one God, walk 7 times around, safe passage of caravans
pilgrimage journey to a sacred site
Quran believed by Muslims to be written record of God's word revealed to Muhammad
Muhammad spend month in cave in Mount Hira- Gabriel angel command him to read
monotheism belief in one god
life of Muhammad prophet of Allah- went to see Abraham, Moses, Jesus
preachings of Muhammad talked about being one god- many did not like and plotted to kill- Muhammad fled from Quraysh into Medina- beginning of lunar calendar known as Hijrah
Islam submission to Allah
Muslims believers in Islam- those who submit to Allah's will
Muhammad in Mecca returned and brought peace- brought new religion- people tried to say no but made an army and won- removed idols from Kabba
mosque Muslim house of worship
Hadith Words or deeds of Muhammad were passed down
Sunna authentic sources of Islamic beliefs and practices
Abraham considered to be father of Arabs through son Ishmael
first pillar- profession of faith "Allah is the only god and Muhammad is his prophet"
second pillar- pray 5 times a day wash before praying and kneel facing Kaaba
third pillar- alms give to the poor and sick and charities
fourth pillar- fast during Ramadan- ninth month no eat or drink from sun up to sun down- bring them closer to Allah
fifth pillar- Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
Muslims holy books cover diet, divorce, marriage- cannot eat pork or drink alcohol
Jihad do best not to be evil
Muhammad's sucess was able to spread Islam because had courage and compassion
Muhammad's death people were scared- needed to pick a new successor but would be a military and political leader
caliph Arabic for successor
Abu Bakr came after Muhammad- put down revolts- spread Islam- two years
caliph contenders Abu Bakr: friend- Umar and Uthman: advisory- Ali: cousin
Umar conquered more land and people- tolerant with conquered people as long as "people of the book"
council assembly
Uthman conquered land and expanded empire- murdered
Ali tried to punish murders but could not- five years
Muawiya developed following in Syria- challenged Ali's right to rule
Shiites- party of Ali thought Ali should have been picked in first place- believe in Imam: took on strong spirituality: gave name to Ali- think only people to be caliph is related to Muhammad by blood
Sunnis- claim to follow example of Muhammad believe in the choice of the first caliphs- emphasize Muhammad's teachings- do not believe in Imam
Created by: efinney