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K.Edwards Fri Facts

American History Friday Facts

QuestionAnswer
the first permanent English settlement; was founded in 1607 Jamestown
signed on July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence
written in 1787 Constitution of the United States
Purchased from France by President Thomas Jefferson in 1803 Louisiana Territory
1861 -- 1865 Dates the Civil War was fought
Where and when were the first shots of the American Revolution fired? Lexington, Massachusetts in April 1775
Site of the first battle of the American Revolution Concord, Massachusetts
turning point of the American Revolution Battle of Saratoga
the defeat of British troops by George Washington's troops signaled the end of the American Revolution Yorktown, Virginia
Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired? Fort Sumter, South Carolina
The turning point in the Civil War for the North; Confederate troops were forced to retreat and never invaded the North again Battle of Gettysburg
split the Confederacy in two and gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi
small town in Virginia where Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army to Ulysses S. Grant ending of Civil War Appomattox Court House
an economic theory that a country's strength is measured by the amount of gold it has; the colonies exist for the benefit of the Mother Country mercantilism
a person who wanted to end slavery in the United States abolitionist
a tax placed on goods from another country to protect the home industry protective tariff
a strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of to the whole country sectionalism
the belief that the United States should own all of the land between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans manifest destiny
a campaign against the sale or drinking of alcohol Temperance Movement
a system of government in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them representative government
a nation in which voters choose representatives to govern them republic
the first representative assembly in the new world House of Burgesses
the legislative, judicial, and executive branch 3 branches of US government
a system set up by the Constitution in which each branch of the federal government has the power to check, or control, the actions of the other branches checks and balances
the freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation free enterprise
the sharing of power between the states and the national government federalism
a system in which each branch of government has its own powers separation of powers
the practice of allowing each territory to decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery popular sovereignty
change amend
rights that cannot be given up, taken away or transferred; life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness unalienable rights
a cruel and unjust government tyranny
a form of goernment that is run for and by the people, giving people the supreme power democracy
approve by vote ratify
the right of the Supreme Court to judge laws passed by Congress and determine whether they are constitutional or not judicial review
the refusal to obey a government law or laws as a means of passive resistance because of one's moral convictions or beliefs civil disobedience
supporters of the constitution who favored a strong national government federalists
people opposed to the Constitution, preferring more power be given to the state governments than to the national government antifederalists
the idea of a state declaring a federal law illegal nullification
original records of an event; eyewitness reports, records created at the time of an event, speeches, and letters by people involved in the event, photographs and artifacts primary sources
the later writings and interpretations of historians and writers; textbooks and articles; summaries of information found in primary sources secondary sources
an attitude toward society in the late 1700s based on the belief that the good virtue and morality of the people was essential to sustain the republican form of government republicanism
the era in which a change from household industries to factory production using powered machinery took place industrial revolution
signed in 1215 by King John; the first document that limited the power of the ruler Magna Carta
protected the rights of English citizens and became the basis for the American Bill of Rights English Bill of Rights
a document written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the colonies independence from England Declaration of Independence
the first American Constitution; a very weak document that limited the power of the Congress by giving states the final authority over all decisions Articles of Confederation
sets out the laws and principles of the government of the United States Constitution of the United States
advised the United States to stay "neutral in its relations with other nations" and to avoid "entangling alliances" George Washington's Farewell Address
a foreign policy statement stating that the US would not interfere in European affairs, and that the western hemisphere was closed to colonization and/or interference by European nations Monroe Doctrine
ended the French and Indian War and effectively kicked the French out of North America Treaty of Paris of 1763
ended the American Revolution and forced Britain to recognize the United States as an independent nation Treaty of Paris of 1783
a policy of establishing the principles and procedures for the orderly expansion of the United States Northwest Ordinance
the agreement signed in 1620 by the Pilgrims in Plymouth to consult each other about laws for the colony and a promise to work together to make it succeed Mayflower Compact
a series of essays written by James Madison, John jay, and Alexander Hamilton, defending the Constitution and the principles on which the government of the United States was founded Federalists Papers
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to convince colonists that it was time to become independent from Britain Common Sense
the first 10 amendments to the Constitution; detail the protection of individual liberties Bill of Rights
a short speech given by Abraham Lincoln to dedicate a cemetery for soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg Gettysburg Address
issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, setting all slaves in the Confederate states free Emancipation Proclamation
stated that "no state... can lawfully get out of the Union", but pledged there would be no war unless the South started it Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
was meant to help heal and restore the country after four years of Civil War Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address
created 2 houses of congress; one based on population and the other gave equal representation to each state Great Compromise
a member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American Independence Samuel Adams
an inventor, statesman, diplomat, signer of the Declaration of Independence and delegate to the Constitutional Convention Benjamin Franklin
the King of England who disbanded the colonial legislatures, taxed the colonies, and refused the Olive Branch Petition leading to the final break with the colonies King George III
wrote the Declaration of Independence; became the 3rd President of the United States; purchased the Louisiana Territory which doubled the size of the United States Thomas Jefferson
wrote pamphlets like Common Sense and The Crisis to encourage american independence and resole Thomas Paine
the leader of the Continental Army and 1st President of the United States George Washington
the leader of the original democratic party and a "President of the People"; he was responsible for the Trail of Tears, which forced Native Americans west of the Mississippi River Andrew Jackson
a South Carolina Congressman and Senator who spoke for the South before and during the Civil War John C. Calhoun
a powerful Kentucky Congressman and Senator who proposed the American System and the Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay
a Massachusetts Congressman and Senator who spoke for the North and the preservation of the Union Daniel Webster
the President of the Confederacy during the Civil War Jefferson Davis
the General of the Union Army and was responsible for winning the Civil War for the North Ulysses S. Grant
General of the Confederate Army Robert E. Lee
the 16th President of the United States who successfully put the Union back together only to be assassinated 5 days after the Civil War ended Abraham Lincoln
a leader of the Federalists first Treasurer of the United States, creator of the Bank of the US, and killed in a duel by the Vice President of the US, Aaron Burr Alexander Hamilton
a passionate patriot who became famous for his fiery speeches in favor of American independence; "give me liberty or give me death" Patrick Henry
Father of the Constitution James Madison
a former slave who became the best-known black abolitionist in the country Frederick Douglas
the author of the doctrine that shut down the western hemisphere to European expansion or interference James Monroe
an escaped slave who became a conductor on the Underground Railroad and helped over 300 slaves to freedom in the North Harriet Tubman
organized the Senecca Falls Convention creating the Women's Rights Movement in the United States Elizabeth Cady Stanton
congress shall make no law restricting freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition first amendment
guarantees the right of states to organize militias, or armies, and the right of individuals to bear arms second amendment
forbids the government to order private citizens to allow soldiers to live in their homes third amendment
requires that warrants be issued if property is to be searched or seized by the government fourth amendment
protects an accused erson from having to testify against him or herself (self-incrimination); bans double jeopardy, and guarantees that no person will suffer the loss of life, liberty or property without due process of law fifth amendment
guarantees the right to a speedy public trial by an impartial jury; the right to a lawyer; the right to cross examine witnesses; and the right to force witnesses at a trial to testify sixth amendment
guarantees the right to trial by jury n civil suits seventh amendment
prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail or fines eighth amendment
states that the people have rights other than those specifically mentioned in the Constitution ninth amendment
states that powers not given to the federal government belong to the states tenth
abolished slavery thirteenth
guarantees citizenship and rights to all people born or naturalized in the United States fourteenth
guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race fifteenth
the 1803 court decision that gave the Supreme Court the right to determine whether a law violates the Constitution; it set up the concept of judicial review Marbury v Madison
the Supreme Court decision that said slaves were property and not citizens Dred Scott v Sanford
an invention by Eli Whitney that sped the cleaning of cotton fibers and in effect, increased the need for slaves Cotton Gin
used and invented by Robert Fulton; revolutionized transportation and trade in the US steamboat
arrived in 1620 Pilgrims
signed in 1620 Mayflower Compact
located in eastern Pennsylvania and served as quarters for the American army in one winter of the Revolutionary War Valley Forge
earliest rebellion of colonists against English colonial control Bacon's Rebellion
allowed the National government to prove that it has the power to enforce the law Whiskey Rebellion
was between Britain and the United States; began over British violations of American shipping rights, such as the impressment of seamen War of 1812
Andrew Jackson was the commanding general; a battle fought 2 weeks after the peace treaty ending the war had been signed, but before armies could be notified Battle of New Orleans
between the United States and Mexico, resulting in the cession by Mexico of lands now constitution all or most of the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado U. S. -- Mexican War
a tax on goods brought into a country tariff
a series of religious revivals in the early 1700s in Colonial America Great Awakening
great influence on religion, prison reform, women's rights movement, abolishment of slavery, advancements in literature, education reform, set up many organizations and charitites Second Great Awakening
the character of an individual viewed as a member of society; behavior in terms of the duties, obligations, and functions citizenship
a group of voters chosen by each state to elect the President and Vice President electoral college
a system in which everyone, even elected officials must obey the laws limited government
a Constitutional struggle between some states and President Andrew Jackson; the states didn't want to pay the protective tariff that Jackson wanted, and teh states claimed the right to "nullify" or declare the tariff void Nullification Crisis
the idea that the power of the states should not be trampled on by the national government State's Rights
a plan to make the US economically self-sufficient American System
gave the US more land that had been northern Mexico and completed the acquisition of land that makes up the present day borders of the US Gadsden Purchase
a group of American landscape painters active from about 1825 to 1875 whose works depict the beauty of the Hudson River Valley, the Catskill Mountains, and Niagara Falls Hudson River School
a continuous rail line connecting a location on the US Pacific coast with one or more of the railroads of the nation's eastern trunk line rail systems operating between the Missouri or Mississippi Rivers and the US Atlantic coast Transcontinental Railroad
a Puritan plan of government adopted in 1639 and was the first constitution in North America; drafted by Thomas Hooker Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
a document written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the colonies independence from England; the public act by which the Colonies were declared free and independent from Britain Declaration of Independence
the document written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and established our government and laws U. S. Constitution
preserved the balance between free and slave states Missouri Compromise
Davis argued that separation from the Union was a "necessity, not a choice" Jefferson Davis' Inaugural Address
an agreement reached at the constitutional convention that allowed slaves to be counted as 3/5 of a white person for population purposes Three Fifths Compromise
Placed restrictions on the immigrants in the country and restricted the freedom of speech and the press Alien and Sedition Acts
Spain sold Florida to the US for $5 million Adams Onis Treaty
required the Indians east of the Mississippi River to be moved to new lands in the west Indian Removal Act
ended the war with Mexico and the US acquired the Mexican Cession Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
the executive order given by Lincoln that freed the slaves in the Confederacy Emancipation Proclamation
a strict plan formed by the Radical Republicans for the reconstruction of the south after the Civil War Radical Reconstruction
declared that everyone born in the US was a citizen and entitled to equal rights regardless of race Civil Rights Act of 1866
imposed military control over southern states and stated that they had to ratify the 14th amendment and allow all former slaves to vote Reconstruction Acts
a book written by Adam Smith discussing government and democracy Wealth of Nations
the name given to the Tariff of 1828 by outraged southerners who felt the tax on imports was excessive and unfairly targeted their region of the country Tariff of Abominations
allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether or not to allow slavery within their borders; served to repeal the Missouri Compromise Kansas Nebraska Act
made public lands in the West available to settlers without payment (160 acres) to be used as farms Homestead Act
allowed for the President to break up reservation land into small allotments to be parceled out to individuals Dawes Act
made it possible for new western states to establish colleges for their citizens Morrill Act
banished from the Massachusetts colony; became the first Puritan woman minister and co-founder of Rhode Island Anne Hutchinson
Quaker leader and founder of Pennsylvania William Penn
wrote plays with anti-British sentiment Mercy Otis Warren
African American killed at the Boston Massacre; first casualty of the American Revolutionary War Crispus Attucks
insisted on the protection of individual rights in the Constitution leading to the creation of the Bill of Rights George Mason
sealed off the port of New Orleans so that British ships could not utilize the Mississippi River and sent supplies to aid the Patriots Bernardo de Galvez
a Jewish banker who loaned money to the American Revolution without being repaid Haym Solomon
a French nobleman who aided Washington during the Revolutionary War Marquis de Lafayette
led the Continental Navy during the American Revolution; father of the Navey John Paul Jones
one of the great political philosophers of the Enlightenment; his theory of separation of powers had an enormous impact on liberal political theory and on the framers of the US Constitution Charles de Montesquieu
published Commentaries on the Laws of England, a work that would dominate the common law legal system; his words would shape the Declaration of Independence and US Constitution William Blackstone
displayed civil disobedience by not paying taxes Henry Thoreau
and African American who spied on the British during the American Revolution James Armistead
a lawyer who won major constitutional cases before the Supreme Court such as Gibbons v. Ogden and McCulloch v. Maryland Daniel Webster
President of the Confederacy (Southern States) during the Civil War Jefferson Davis
a former slave, abolitionist, first black woman to speak out for women's rights Sojourner Truth
notable for his study to document all types of American birds John Audobon
was on board the USS Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher Phillip Bazaar
an African American soldier during the American Civil War who received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Fort Wagner William Carney
the father of the American detective novel Edgar Alan Poe
the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who handed down the decision of Marbury v. Madison John Marshall
the most popular American poet of the 19th century with works like Song of Hiawatha and Paul Revere's Ride Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
president of the Continental Congress; first to sign the Declaration of Independence John Hancock
2nd President; Alien and Sedition Acts John Adams
wife of President Adams and mother to President John Quincy Adams; known for giving advice regarding women's rights Abigail Adams
Secretary of State under Monroe and assisted in writing the Monroe Doctrine; was essential in the signing of the Treaty of Ghent John Quincy Adams
an American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming Paul Revere
a 17th-century English philosopher; argued that governments depend on the consent of the governed John Locke
an African American teacher, Revolutionary War veteran, assessor, auditor, of mixed race and listed in the census as white Wentworth Chesswell
was the publisher of the anti-slavery newspaper the Liberator and founder of the Anti-Slavery Society, one of the most outspoken abolitionist of the Civil War period William Lloyd Garrison
a social reformer who pioneered in the reform of prisons and in the treatment of the mentally ill; in charge of women army nurses during the American Civil War Dorthea Dix
a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and a politician; the first person of color to serve in the US Senate and in the US Congress overall Hiram Rhodes Revel
a pioneer nurse who founded the American Red Cross Clara BArton
the sponsor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act as well as the most vocal supporter of popular sovereignty and ran against Lincoln to become Senator of Illinois Stephen Douglas
a general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War; his troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall Thomas Stonewall Jackson
writer of the Battle Hymn of the Republic that was sung by Union troops during the Civil War Julia Ward Howe
the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution Gibbons v. Ogden
the states cannot interfere with any federal agency by imposing a direct tax upon it Maryland v. McCulloch
upheld the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal" Plessy v. Ferguson
declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional Brown v. Board of Education
the US Supreme Court decision that the Cherokee Indians constituted a nation holding distinct sovereign powers Worchester v. Georgia
inventor of the steel plow John Deere
Created by: kr_edwards04