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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Vocabulary

Jedediah Smith a mountain man leading an expedition to find a route through the Rocky Mts.
mountain man a fur trapper or explorer who opened up the West by finding the best trails through the Rocky Mts.
Jim Beckwourth a mountain man who became famous as rugged loners
land speculator a person who buys huge areas of land for a low price and then sells of small sections of it at high prices
Santa Fe Trail a trail that began in Missouri and ended in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Oregon Trail a trail that ran westward from Independence, Missouri, to the Oregon Territory
Mormon a member of a church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830
Brigham Young the man who took Joseph Smith's place as the Mormon Leader
Stephen Austin son of a bankrupt Missouri mine owner who carried out his father's dying wish
Tejano a person of Spanish heritage who considered Texas his or her home
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna the Mexican president
Sam Houston placed in command of the Texas army
William Travis headed a company of 183 volunteers at the Alamo
Juan Seguin led a band of 25 Tejanos in support of revolt
Battle of the Alamo in 1836, Texans defended a church called the Alamo against the Mexican army; all but five Texans were killed
Lone Star Republic the nickname of the republic of Texas, given in 1836
James K. Polk the 11th president of the United States
manifest destiny the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Zachary Taylor President Polk ordered him to station troops on the northern band of the Rio Grande
Bear Flag Revolt the 1846 rebellion by Americans against Mexican rule in California
Winfield Scott defeated Mexico City September 1847
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo the 1848 treaty ending the US war with Mexico; Mexico ceded nearly one-half of its land to the United States
Mexican Cession a vast region given up by Mexico after the War with Mexico; it included the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming
forty-niner a person who went to California to find gold, starting in 1849
Californio settlers of Spanish or Mexican descent
Mariano Vallejo an important Californio; a member of one of the oldest Spanish families in America, he owned 250,000 acres of land
John Sutter a Swiss immigrant
James Marshall in 1848, Sutter sent a nearby carpenter, himself, to build a sawmill on the nearby American River
California gold rush in 1849, large numbers of people moved to California because gold had been discovered there
Created by: s0205202