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AM HIST 17 Vocab

AM HIST 17 Vocab Coursemate

QuestionAnswer
“new immigrants” Newcomers from southern and eastern Europe who began to arrive in the United States in significant numbers during the 1890s and after.
“old immigrants” Newcomers from northern and western Europe who made up much of the immigration to the United States before the 1890s.
American Federation of Labor (AFL) National organization of trade unions founded in 1886; it used strikes and boycotts to improve the lot of craft workers.
American Protective Association An anti-Catholic organization founded in Iowa in 1887 and active during the next decade.
anarchist A person who believes that all forms of government are oppressive and should be abolished.
Anglos A term applied in the Southwest to English-speaking whites.
assimilation Among culturally distinct groups, the process of adopting the behaviors and values of the dominant society and its culture.
Atlanta Compromise Name applied by Booker T. Washington’s critics to his 1895 speech urging African Americans to temporarily accept segregation and disfranchisement.
barrio A Spanish-speaking community, often a part of a larger city.
Booker T. Washington Former slave who became an educator and founded Tuskegee Institute, a leading black educational institution; known as an advocate of accommodation with white southerners.
Californios The Spanish-speaking settlers of California and their descendants.
Chinatown A section of a city inhabited chiefly by people of Chinese birth or ancestry.
Chinese Exclusion Act Act of Congress (1882) prohibiting Chinese laborers from entering the United States; extended periodically until World War II.
chlorination The treatment of water with the chemical chlorine to kill germs.
Civil Rights Cases Supreme Court decisions in 1883 that specified that private companies could legally discriminate against individuals based on race.
consumer culture A consumer buys products for personal use; a consumer culture emphasizes the values and attitudes that derive from the participants’ roles as consumers.
cooperative A business enterprise in which workers and consumers share in ownership and take part in management.
craft union, trade union Labor union that organizes skilled workers engaged in a specific craft or trade.
Dawes Severalty Act Law passed by Congress in 1887 intended to break up Indian reservations to create individual farms (holding land in severalty, that is, individually) rather than maintaining common ownership of the land.
disenfranchise To take away the right to vote.
domesticity The notion common throughout much of the nineteenth century that women should focus on the home, nurture of children, church, and school.
ethnic group A group that shares a racial, religious, linguistic, cultural, or national heritage.
Eugene V. Debs American Railway Union leader who was jailed for his role in the Pullman strike; later became a leading socialist and ran for president.
famine A serious and widespread shortage of food.
franchise Government authorization allowing a company to provide a public service in a certain area.
general strike A strike by members of all unions in a particular region.
grandfather clause Louisiana rule that permitted a man to vote if his father or grandfather was eligible in 1867, allowing white men to circumvent rules disfranchising blacks; now refers to any law that exempts some people from current regulations based on past practice.
Great Railway Strike of 1877 Largely spontaneous strikes by railroad workers, triggered by wage cuts.
Hispanos The Spanish-speaking settlers of New Mexico and their descendants.
industrial union A union that includes all of the workers, both skilled or unskilled, in a particular industry.
infrastructure Basic facilities that a society needs to function, such as transportation systems, water and power lines, and public institutions such as schools, post offices, and prisons.
injunction A court order requiring an individual or a group to do something or to refrain from doing something.
Knights of Labor Organization founded in 1869; membership, open to all workers, peaked in 1886; members favored a cooperative alternative to capitalism.
Lost Cause Term for a romanticized view of the Confederate struggle in the Civil War as a noble but doomed effort to preserve a way of life.
manufacturing belt The region that includes most factories and, in the late nineteenth century, also included most of the nation’s large cities and railroad lines and much of its mining.
Masons The Ancient Free and Accepted Masons is one of the largest secret fraternal societies. The order uses allegorical rituals, open only to members, to teach moral values. It is limited to men but has auxiliaries open to women.
mestizo A person of mixed Spanish and Indian ancestry.
militia A volunteer military force, organized by state governments, consisting of civilians who agree to be mobilized in times of emergency; now superseded by the National Guard.
National Labor Union Federation of trade unions and reform societies organized in 1866; it lasted only six years but helped push through a law limiting government employees to an eight-hour workday.
nativism The view that old-stock values and social patterns were preferable to those of immigrants.
normal school Two-year school for training teachers for grades 1–8.
Old South Term for a romanticized view of the pre–Civil War South as a place of gentility and gallantry.
peyote cult A religion that included ceremonial use of the hallucinogenic peyote cactus, native to Mexico and the Southwest.
piecework Work for which someone is paid for the number of items turned out, rather than by the hour.
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision in 1896 upholding a Louisiana law requiring segregation of railroad facilities; argued that “separate but equal” facilities were constitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment.
poll tax Annual tax imposed on each citizen; used in some southern states to disfranchise black voters, as the only penalty for not paying was loss of voting rights.
restrictive covenant Provision in a property title restricting subsequent sale or use of the property, often specifying sale only to a white Christian.
Samuel Gompers First president of the AFL; sought to divorce labor organizing from politics and stressed practical demands involving wages and hours.
Scandinavia The region of northern Europe consisting of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Iceland.
separate spheres The notion that men should engage in the public sphere of business and politics but women should limit themselves to the private, domestic sphere. Women and some men increasingly challenged this idea in the late nineteenth century.
sodomy Varieties of sexual intercourse prohibited by law in the nineteenth century, typically including intercourse between two males.
speed-up An effort to make employees produce more goods in the same time or for the same pay.
subculture A group whose members differ from the dominant culture in some values or interests but who share most values and interests with the dominant culture.
suburb A residential area lying outside the central city; many residents of suburbs work and shop in the central city though living outside it.
Tejanos Spanish-speaking people born in Texas.
tenement A multifamily apartment building, often unsafe, unsanitary, and overcrowded.
Terrence V. Powderly Leader of the Knights of Labor from 1879 to 1893; three-term mayor of Scranton, Pennsylvania.
U.S. marshal A federal law-enforcement official.
walking city Term describing cities before changes in urban transportation permitted cities to expand beyond the distance that a person could easily cover on foot.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union Women’s organization founded in 1874 that opposed alcoholic beverages and supported reforms such as woman suffrage.
Created by: mcain1994