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UND 363 Nervous sys.

UND 363 Nervous System

What are the 2 subdivisions of the nervous system Central and Peripheral
Does the central nervous system have any connective tissue only in the meninges and larger vessels
what is the meninges a system of membrans that cover CNS
what are the 3 layers of the minenges duramater, arachnoid, pia mater
what is the function of the brain recieves input from spinal cord, process sensory inputs and output motor responses
what are the three main parts of the brain cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem
what does the celebrum consist of 2 hemispheres. the outerlayer is called the grey matter (covers white matter). The nuclei within is called the white matter
what does the cerebellum control psychomotor functions
what is the function of the spinal cord main pathway for info to brain and periperhal nervous ssytem (relay system), conducts motor info to the EFFECTORS (skelegal, glands, etc...)
what is the subarachnoid space it is between the arachnoid and pia matter of minenges and is filled with CSF
what is white matter bands of axons coated with a sheath of myelin (myelin gives the white color)
what is the grey matter cell bodies and dendrites of these cells
how is the grey matter different in the spinal cord white matter is at the surface and the grey matter is centrally located
If there are more axon therefore? there is more white matter (in both brain and spinal cord)
what are 4 groups of nerves running down spinal column cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
what tissues make up the peripheral nervous system all tissues outside the brain and spinal cord
what organs make up the peripheral nervous system nerves and ganglia
what are the 2 subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system somatic and automonic
how many somatic nerves are there and how are they controlled 12 pairs cranial and 31 spinal nerves (Voluntary)
what do the automonic nervous system nerves do connect CNS to internal organs (INVoluntary)
what does the nervous system do controls, regulates, communicates, thought/learning/memory, works with endocrine to regulate homeostasis
what are the components of the nervous system brain spinal cord, nerves and ganglia
that are the three functions of the nervous system 1 sensory input (monitor changes) - outside (temp/light/sound), inside (CO2, electrolytes), 2 integration - convert sensory to nerve impulses 3 motor function - muscles and glands (effectors) react to nerve impulse
what are the 2 types of cells of the nervous system neuron (conduct impulse), glial/neuroglia cell (provide support and are non-conductive)
Neurons do what and have what 3 parts conduct impulses (don't go through mitosis an therefore if destroyed will not be replace), 1. nucleus, (w/nucleolus, nissl granules and pigment in cytplasm 2.dendrites (cell to cell communication), 3. axon (carries signal length of cell)
what pigments are in the cytoplasm of the neuron cell body lipo fuchsin (yellow/brown) and neural melanin (brown granular)
what can axons be covered with myellin (made of fat)
where are myelinated neurons found ONLY found in peripheral nerves
facts about nissl bodies basophilic, found in cytoplasm, represent rough endoplasmic reticulum (have ribosomes attached that contain RNA, and will appear stippled)
What happens to nissl bodies if damage occurs pattern changes, they first move to the periphery of the cell and then will dissapear
what is the loss of nissl bodies (+swelling) called? chromatolysis
facts about neuroglia (IN CNS) support/protect neurons (produce myelin sheath/regulate environ., outnumber neurons 5-10:1, smaller than neurons
what are the 4 types of neuroglia astroglia, oligodendroglia, microglia, ependymal cells
what types of neroglia are found in the Peripheral nervous system schwann cells (produce myelin sheath) and satelite cells
facts about astrocytes stellate cells (star shaped), have small ovonuclei, open chromatin, and small nucleolus
astrocytes are _________in gray matter and ___________in white matter protoplasmic in gray matter and fibrous in white matter
what are 2 functions of astrocytes form support network in CNA (attach neurons to blood vessels), form scars after injury to CNS (called gliosis)
what happens to astrocytes during gliosis increase in size, develop pink cytoplasm, and the nucleus gets excentrically placed
what special stains can be used to ID astrocytes Cajal (via gold impregnation), holzer (good for gliosis in large sections, PTAH (stains reactive astrocytes but the myelin staining will limit it to the gray matter, IHC - glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)
facts about oligodenroglia most numerous of glial cell, found in grey matter (provied neuron support) and white matter (produce myelin sheath), small dense round nucleus with indistinct cytoplasm, rarely demonstrated, HYPERchromatic
how does oligodenroglia provide support in grey matter make semi rigid connective tissue rows between neurons
facts about myelin formed by oligodenroglia in CNS and schwann cells in PNS, provide insulating layer that increases speed of impulses along axon, are white/fatty containing protein, cholesterol, phoshpholipid and cerebrosides)
what stain can be used to demo myelin luxol fast blue, IHC
facts about microglia derived from monocytes in bone marrow, can destroy microorganisms (brain macrophages), in H&E will appear as small dense rod-shaped nuclei
facts about ependymal cells line central canal of spinal cord and line brain ventricles, form cuboidal/columnar epithelium in spinal cord and low cubiodal epith. in ventricle (both are ciliated epithial cells to help CSF move), form barrier between nervous system and CSF.
how can ependymal cells be stained Iron Hematox methods, PTAH, IHC
what stains can be used for neurons bodian, holmes silver, bielschowsky PAS, beilschowsky m'wave, sevier-munger biel mod.
3 stains for neuroglia cells mallory PTAH, holzer, cajal stain
what stains can be used for myelin weil, luxol fast blue, luxol fast-cresyl echt, luxol fast-holmes silver, IHC
Created by: mustangvxd



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