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ESL TExES

Preparation Course

TermDefinition
ELL English Language Learner
ESL English as a Second Language
ESOL English for Speakers of Other Languages
BE or BIL Bilingual Education
L1 One's First (primary, native) Language
L2 One's Second Language
LEP Limited English Proficiency
NON - LEP Proficient in English
Competency 001 The ESL teacher understands fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English language.
Phonology is the study of the system and pattern of speech sounds of a language.
Phoneme is a speech sound identified by a native speaker. (phonemic awareness)
Phonetics is the study of how phonemes are physically produced.
Phonics is the study of how phonemes are represented in written language.
Morpheme stem, prefix, suffix
Semantics includes synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, and multiple-meaning words.
Denotation vs. Connotation Direct, literal meaning (Ex: dog ( an animal)) Figurative, metaphorical meaning (Ex: dog (an unattractive girl))
Tonal Register level of tone of speech (high, medium, low) Includes stress
Frozen Happy Birthday, The Pledge of Allegiance
Formal Standard English
Consultative Less direct than formal English
Casual General vocabulary, may be poor syntax
Intimate Language of lovers and twins
Dialect A variety of language defined by both geographical factors and social factors, such as class, religion and ethnicity.
Standard Dialect Official recognition in dictionaries, printed works Language of education Language of people in power Identified as "correct" grammar
Dialectic Differences Pronunciation Grammar Semantics
Interrelated Process Listening Reading Speaking Writing
Receptive Listening and Reading
Expressive / Productive Speaking and Writing
Integrate the Skills Four skills should be taught in an integrated manner as they are used in authentic communication Skill reinforce one another
Content- Based Instruction Opportunities for meaningful communication Concurrent social and cognitive development Wide range of academic concepts and language functions
Task-Based Instruction Real-life tasks combine languages with non-linguistic functions Focus on meaning Requires information gathering, comprehension, interaction, language production
BICS Basic Interpersonal Communications Skills
CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Competency 002 The ESL teacher understands the process of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) acquisition and the interrelated of L1 and L2 development.
Prelinguistic Universal sounds Cries, whimpers, coos Stimulus-controlled, involuntary Not creative, so not language yet
Babbling (6 months) Large variety of sound Learning to distinguish native language sounds Begin to resemble adult speech pitch
Holophrastic (8 - 14 months) Complete ideas in one word sentence Sound / meaning connected Concerns actions, emotions, naming Can comprehend more than can produce
Two-word (12 - 18 months) Holophrastic strings at first Evolves to clear syntactic and semantic relations
Telegraphic (18-24) Main message words (content) Sentence-like grammar -ing morpheme, in and on prepositions, regular plurals
Preschool and School Age Simple syntactic structures (3-4yrs) Speech sounds correctly pronounced (4-8yrs) Improves language deductively Formal teaching introduced Language learning (pragmatics, registers) Most semantic distinctions understood (9-11yrs.)
Behaviorism (Skinner) Habit formation by repetition Audiolingual methods (in classroom) Learn by repetition
Constructivism (Piaget) Learning result of social interaction Progress from concrete to more abstract, from figurative to operative Exploratory, discovery learning (in classroom)
Nativism (Chomsky) Language Acquisition Device (LAD) LAD contains principles of Universal Grammar Independent process (not general learning) Deductive skills
Communicative Approach (Krashen) Two separate processes in development of language - acquisition and learning
Created by: podell16