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Histo 2 Exam 1 MASH

QuestionAnswer
Which Cardiac muscle fibers are smaller, have fewer gap junctions and fewer intercalated discs than regular cardiac muscles fibers? AV Node
How would these specialized cardiac muscle cells function differently than regular cardiac muscle cells? SLOWER conduction speed through the AV node (.01 m/sec vs. 0.3 m/sec for working atrial muscle)
Name the blood vessel described: primary factor in maintenance of normal arterial blood pressure Arteriole
Name the blood vessel described: Endothelium usually the most responsive to histamine and so is very important in the inflammatory response Venules
Name the blood vessel described: Often associated with phagocytic cells Discontinuous Sinusoids
The Atheromatous plaque begins in the A_________(layer) of the B._________ (vessel) A. Tunica Intima B. Arteries (Usually med size)
What is the function of the basal cell in the olfactory mucosa? PRECURSORS – replaces bipolar neurons and supporting cells
Which chronic obstructive airway disease is characterized by thickened bronchial walls caused by an increase in smooth muscle and mucous glands? Chronic Bronchitis
Omitting surfactant, diagram and label the components of the blood-air barrier in the respiratory alveolus. Air -> type I pneumocyte with its basal lamina -> basal lamina of endothelium -> endothelium -> (inside of blood capillary)(page 10 notes)
What is the function of surfactant? Coats insdie of Alveoli decreaseing surface tension in alveolus caused by water breaking H-bonds making expansion of alveolus easier and preventing collapse during expiration (allows breathing to occur easier)
What are the important functions of elastic in the bronchioles and alveoli? Facilitates expansion during inspiration, recoil during expiration and prevents collapse
What are Peyer’s Patches? Groups of Lymphoid tissue
Where are Peyer's Patches found? (Ileum of) small intestine
Consider the parietal cell of the stomach. How does its cytology relate to its function? Lots of mitochondria to secrete through gradient, lots of plasma membrane for active transport. Lots of ribosomes, rER, Golgi for production of intrinsic factor that is secreted.
Blood in the liver sinusoid comes from A._______ and drains into the B.________. a.Portal v. b.Hepatic v.
What cells secrete proteolytic enzymes into the GI tract? Pancreatic acinar cells, chief cells
Give the specific targets of pancreozymin. Pancreozymin – acinar cells of pancreas (Release digestive enzymes in response)
Give the specific targets of cholecystokinin Cholecystokinin – smooth muscle of gallbladder (activates smooth muscle contraction)
Chylomicrons are formed by the A. ________ cell and are carried away from the small intestine by B._________ A. Absorptive B. Lymphatic System (lacteals)
What cell synthesizes bile? Hepatocyte
What forms the smooth dome-shaped elevations of the dorsal 1/3 of the tongue? Lymphatic tissue
In cirrhosis of the liver, hepatocytes die but can be regenerated. Why does cirrhosis commonly progress to liver failure in spite of the new hepatocytes? The new cells cannot reform connections with the sinusoids, which results in portal hypertension.
By which receptor model would aldosterone likely affect its targets? Mobile/intracellular receptor model
Name the hormones described: Increased blood sugar by gluconeogenesis Glucagon, Cortisol
Name the hormones described: Low levels in infancy result in mental retardation T3, T4 thyroid hormones
Name the hormones described: Increases blood calcium Parathyroid Hormone
Name the hormones described: Stimulates contraction of uterine smooth muscle oxytocin
Name the hormones described: Decrease blood potassium Aldosterone
Name the hormones described: Decrease the sensitivity of targets to catecholamines ??? Ask teacher ???
What type of capillaries would be expected in an endocrine gland or in the Kidneys? Fenestrated Capillaries
Which blood vessels are major factors in maintenance of normal arterial blood pressure? Arterioles
Compared to a medium sized artery, a medium sized vein has more A.______ and less B. ________ A. Collagen B. Smooth Muscles and elastic
Which cells of the heart secrete angiopeptins? Atrial myocytes
Which group of cardiac muscle cells has the SLOWEST transmission speed? Av node
Give the components of the parietal pericardium. Outer dense fibrous layer Inner serous layer
Atheroma is a disease of the A. ______ which begins in the B. Tunica _______. A. Arteries B. Tunica Intima
Calcific Valve disease usually affects the ________ valve. Aortic Valve
The bipolar neurons of the olfactory mucosa continuously differentiate from ________ cells. Basal Cells
What is the function of surfactant? Coats insdie of Alveoli decreaseing surface tension in alveolus caused by water breaking H-bonds making expansion of alveolus easier and preventing collapse during expiration (allows breathing to occur easier)
List the layers that oxygen must cross to move from the air space of the alveolus into the blood. Air  surfactant Type I pneumocyte  fused basal laminas endothelium  lumen of B.V. (blood)(page 10 notes)
Smooth muscle is a component of the respiratory tree from the bronchi through the ____________. Alveolar duct
Which chronic obstructive airway disease includes a loss of elastic support in the bronchioles? Emphysema
In cirrhosis of the liver, hepatocytes can regenerate and produce a new population of cells. That being the case, why does cirrhosis often lead to liver failure? The new cells cannot reform connections with the sinusoids, which results in portal hypertension.
What is the fundamental abnormality in Hirschsprung’s disease? Lack of ganglion cells in the rectum
In addition to enzymes, serous salivary glands also secrete________. IgA, lactoferrin
What general activities of the parietal cell are suggested by it cytology? Lots of surface area and mitochondria for secretion; specifically against a concentration gradient.
Consider pancreozymin/cholecystokinin. A. This hormone is secreted by ________________. B. Give its two major targets and the response of each target. A. Endocrine cells of small intestines B. Gallbladders smooth m. – secretes bile into duodenum Pancreatic acinar cells – secrete digestive enzymes into duodenum
The pancreatic duct secretes A. _____ in response to B. _______ A. Alkaline fluid B. Secretin
Name the hormones. Choose your answers from the list provided. Secreted by neuron of the hypothalamus a. Antidiurectic hormone b. Follicle stimulating hormone c. Growth hormone d. Luteinizing hormone e. Oxytocin f. Prolactin g. Somatostatin A G
Choose your answers from the list provided. Stimulates cells of the kidney to reabsorb water a. Antidiurectic hormone b. Follicle stimulating hormone c. Growth hormone d. Luteinizing hormone e. Oxytocin f. Prolactin g. Somatostatin A
Choose your answers from the list provided. Under Tonic Inhibition a. Antidiurectic hormone b. Follicle stimulating hormone c. Growth hormone d. Luteinizing hormone e. Oxytocin f. Prolactin g. Somatostatin F
Choose your answers from the list provided. Stimulates emptying of the mammary gland a. Antidiurectic hormone b. Follicle stimulating hormone c. Growth hormone d. Luteinizing hormone e. Oxytocin f. Prolactin g. Somatostatin E
Choose your answers from the list provided. Affects mitosis of the epiphyseal disc. a. Antidiurectic hormone b. Follicle stimulating hormone c. Growth hormone d. Luteinizing hormone e. Oxytocin f. Prolactin g. Somatostatin C
Choose from the list provided. Stimulates the Leydig cells of the testis to secrete testosterone a. Antidiurectic hormone b. Follicle stimulating hormone c. Growth hormone d. Luteinizing hormone e. Oxytocin f. Prolactin g. Somatostatin D
Which portion of the pituitary differentiates from Rathke’s pouch? Adenohypophysis
What is the function of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system? Ensures that concentration of RF or RIF is HIGH enough to stimulate target cells
In atheroma, atheromatous plaques form in the A. _____layer of B._____ (vessels) A. tunica intima B. arteries
What are the two main consequences of atheroma in the coronary arteries? Angina, myocardial infarction
Describe the parietal pericardium: The outer layer is composed of A. ______ and the inner layer is composed of B.________ a. Dense fibrous CT membrane b. Serous membrane
What type of capillary would most likely be found in endocrine organs? Fenestrated Capillary
Compare the wall of a medium sized vein with the wall of its companion medium sized artery: The vein has more A._______ and less B._________. A. Collagen B. Smooth Muscles and elastic
In most people, the sinoatrial (SA) node in the pacemaker. What makes it the pacemaker? Greatest rate of intrinsic depolarization... it starts the impulse that travels through out the heart
The atrial and ventricular muscles are connected by the _______ cardiac skeletal
Which chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by bronchoconstriction and excessive mucus production? asthma
In the walls of the respiratory tree, seromucus glands are found from the level of the trachea through the level of the ________ Bronchi
Which cell of the alveolus contributes to the blood-air barrier? Alveolar type I pnemonocyte
The walls of the bronchioles are composed of _________ Smooth muscle and elastic CT in helical formation
In the true vocal cord, the fibroelastic vocal ligament is covered with ________ epithelium StratGastric-type glandular epith’m B. Prone to ulceration/inflammation and predisified squamous (non-keratinized)
Barrett’s esophagus is an example of metaplasia. In the esophagus, this means that the normal epith’m is converted to A.________ B. Why is this matter of concern? A. Gastric-type glandular epith’m B. Prone to ulceration/inflammation and predisposed to esophageal cancer
In cirrhosis of the liver, loss of the normal sinusoidal connections between the portal vein and the hepatic vein results in __________. Portal Hypertension
Describe the histology of the hepatic sinusoid. discontinuous endothelium and discontinuous B.L. and Kupffer cells (macrophages)
How does the structure of the hepatic sinusoid relate to its function? many large molecules need to move through the tissue and the macrophages are needed to protect against microorgansisms and waste products
A. secrete protein cleaving enzymes in the GI tract a. chief b. parietal c. endocrine d. mucus neck k. acinar l. duct Cells of the gallbladder m. duct n. epithelial o. smooth muscle Cells of the liver p. hepatocyte Cheif, acinar
B.secrete HCl: a. chief b. parietal c. endocrine d. absorptive e. paneth f. goblet g. submucosal gland h. endocrine Cells of the pancreas i. acinar j. duct Cells of the gallbladder k. duct l. smooth muscle Cells of the liver Parietal
C.Synthesize chylomicron a. chief b. parietal c. endocrine d. absorptive e. paneth f. goblet g. submucosal gland h. endocrine Cells of the pancreas i. acinar j. duct Cells of the gallbladder k. duct l. smooth muscle Cells of the liver Absorptive
D.Secrete (NOT release) in response to pancreozynmin a.chief b.parietal c.endocrine d.absorptive e.paneth f.goblet g.submucosal gland h.endocrine Cells of the pancreas i.acinar j.duct Cells of the gallbladder k.duct l.smooth muscle Pancreatic acinardfssdfsdfsdf
Enzymes of the glycocalyx perform the terminal digestion of proteins and carbohydrates d.absorptive e.paneth f.goblet g.submucosal gland h.endocrine Cells of the pancreas i.acinar j.duct Cells of the gallbladder k.duct l.smooth muscle Absorptive
Secrete alkaline products in response to secretin a.chief b.parietal c.endocrine d.absorptive e.paneth f.goblet g.submucosal gland h.endocrine Cells of the pancreas i.acinar j.duct Cells of the gallbladder k.duct l.smooth muscle duct cells of gallbladder, duct, submucosal gland
Secrete Gastrin a.chief b.parietal c.endocrine d.absorptive e.paneth f.goblet g.submucosal gland h.endocrine Cells of the pancreas i.acinar j.duct Cells of the gallbladder k.duct l.smooth muscle endocrine, endocrine cells of pancreas
Secrete intinsic factor a.chief b.parietal c.endocrine d.absorptive e.paneth f.goblet g.submucosal gland h.endocrine Cells of the pancreas i.acinar j.duct Cells of the gallbladder k.duct l.smooth muscle parietal
I. Smooth muscle constricts in response to cholecystokinin a.chief b.parietal c.endocrine d.absorptive e.paneth f.goblet g.submucosal gland h.endocrine Cells of the pancreas i.acinar j.duct Cells of the gallbladder k.duct l.smooth muscle smooth muscle
Synthesizes lysozyme a.chief b.parietal c.endocrine d.absorptive e.paneth f.goblet g.submucosal gland h.endocrine Cells of the pancreas i.acinar j.duct Cells of the gallbladder k.duct l.smooth muscle paneth
A steroid hormone is likely to affect its target via the _______ receptor model. mobile/intracellular
Rathke’s pouch gives rise to all components of the ________ Adenohypophysis
The nerve cell bodies of cells secreting oxytocin are located _______ Hypothalamus
Which blood vessel is primarily responsible for the maintainence of normal arterial blood pressure? Arteriole
Describe the tunica media of an elastic artery. Alternating sheets of smooth muscle and elastic
What portion of the conducting system pierces the cardiac skeleton? Av Node
What would happen if the Av Bundle is damaged? There would be no conductance to the ventricles... the atria and ventricles would not be able to communicate and they would contract at different times and may go into fibrillation
Gallbladder smooth muscle constricts in response to A. _____ which is secreted by B. __________ A. Cholecystokinin (pancreozymine) B. Endocrine cells of small intestine
Which cells of the digestive system secrete: Most of the proteolytic enzymes Pancreatic acinar cells
Which cells of the digestive system secrete: Intrinsic factor parietal cells
Which cells of the digestive system secrete: Bile salts hepatocytes
Present in small intestine, large, or both: A.crypts B.appendices epiploicae C.submucosal glands D.goblet cells E.plica circulares F.paneth cells A. both B. Large C. Small D. Both E. Small F. Small
Present in small intestine, large, or both: G.absorptive cells H.villi I.lymphoid cells G. Both H. Small I. Both
Esophageal varices are a potentially lethal complication of cirrohosis. Why? Varices can occur in the lumen of the esophagus where they can be easily eroded by gastric acid resulting in hemorrhage. The bleeding is fatal
Which lingual papillae contain taste buds? Circumvallate, Fungiform
Which major salivary is primarily composed of serous acini? Parotid Gland
Hormone that stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells in the lacating mammary gland Oxytocin
Hormone that increases blood sugar Glucagon, Cortisol, Epinephrine
Hormone secreted in response to an increase in blood osmolarity Antidiuretic Hormone
Hormone with low levels result in growth and mental retardation T3 and T4
Hormone with low levels result in diabetes insipidis ADH
Hormone that inhibits secretion of insulin, glucagons, growth hormone Somatostatin
In the respiratory tree, elastic tissue is found from the level of the trachea through the level of the_____________ Alveolus
A. What substance reduces the alveolar surface tension? B. Why is it important? A. Surfactant B. Allows expansion of alveolus during inspriation and prevents the collapse during exhaltion
The true vocal cord is covered by __________ epithelium Stratified squamous (Non Keratinizing)
What is the function of the basal cell of the olfactory mucosa? The production of new olfactory receptor cells
describe and elastic artery A.is primarily responsible for the maintenance of normal arterial blood pressure B.has a pronounced internal elastic lamina C.has abundant elastic in its tunica media D.has abundant smooth muscle in its tunica media All True
How does the cytology of purkinje fibers differ from that of regular cardiac muscle fibers? Larger cells, more gap junctions, more intercalated discs, increased glycogen, decreased myofibrils
The parietal pericardium is non- distensible. Describe why? Due to the dense fibrous connective tissue in it.
Describe the structure of the least permeable capillary Continuous endothelium and basil lamina w/occluding junctions
Which cells of the heart secrete a product which causes relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and the loss of sodium and water through the kidney? Atrial myocardial cells (myocyte) secrete atrialpeptins
Atheromatous plaques form in the A.______ (layer) of B. ______ (type of vessel). Tunica Intama Arteries
Name two disease processes which cause chronic obstructive airway disease. Asthma, Emphysema, chronic bronchitis
What are the major components of the bronchiolar wall? Helical Smooth m. and helical Elastic Lamina
In the respiratory tree, seromucous glands are found from the trachea through the ___________. Bronchi
Give the targets of pancreozymin and their responses: J. In the pancreas, pancreozymin stimulates the A. _______ cells to B. _________. K. In the gall bladder, it stimulates the C. _______ to D. ______ pancreatic acinar cells Secrete digestive enzymes smooth muscle to contract RELEASE of bile
Terminal digestion of most CHO and proteins is accomplished by ________. Enzymes secreted by the glycocalyx of absorptive cells in the small intestine
Neutralization of the acid ph in the distal ileum is accomplished by A. _____ (product) secreted by B. _______ cells. secretion of intestinal fluid (alkaline) Undifferentiated
Which of the following are characteristic of the: Small Intestine a. Villi b. Crypts c. Paneth Cells d. Tenia coli Villi, Crypts, Paneth Cells
Which of the following are characteristic of the: Large Intestine a. Villi b. Crypts c. Paneth Cells d. Tenia coli Crypts, Tenia Coli
What is the function of the lacteal? Lymphatic vessels that collect cholomicrons from absorbing cells in small intestine
Which lingual papillae contain taste buds? Fungiform, circumvillate
If the epith’m of the distal esophagus is chronically exposed to gastric secretions it may undergo metaplasia and develop into A. ________. B. Why is this a problem? Gastric Type Gandular Epith’m Predisposed to cancer and prone to ulceration and inflammation.
What structural changes occur in cirrhosis of the liver that cause portal hypertension? New cells cannot reform connections with sinusoids
What cytological characteristics of the gall bladder reflect its function of concentration of bile? Simple columnar with dense microvillus border and tight junctions
The ectodermal diverticulum called Rathke’s pouch gives rise to all components of the _________. Adenohyphophysis
The ectodermal diverticulum called Rathke’s pouch gives rise to all components of the _________. Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin are secreted from neurons whose nerve cell bodies are located in _________. Hypothalamus
In normal physiology, antidiuretic hormone is secreted in response to A. ___________ and cause the kidney to B. ___________ Increase in blood osmolarity sensed by neurons of brain, LOW blood volume sensed by stretch receptors in right atrium and baroreceptors in aorta, pulmonary and carotid aa. Reabsorbs H2O
In females, it appears that __________ (hormone) is important in the stress reaction. Oxytocin
Created by: T1NWHSU