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BC 351- Unit 1

all cancers originate from a single cell
____ Americans will develop cancer 2/5 (half of these will die from it)
benign tumor grows, but does not invade surrounding tissue
malignant tumor invades surrounding tissue
metastasis colonization of other sites
carcinoma epithelial tissues- 80% of deaths
sarcoma non-epithelial tissues (connective, fat, bone, muscle)
leukemia cancerous cells in blood circulation
lymphoma solid tumors of the lymph nodes
melanoma cancerous melanocytes
_____ especially increase sharply w/ age carcinomas
the incidence of cancer increases dramatically w/ age due to the time required to accumulate approximately 6 changes in a cell
cancer risk factors (4) carcinogens, chemicals, physical, lifestyle
physical cancer risk factors radiation (x-rays)
lifestyle cancer risk factors nuns (no children- increased incidents of breast cancer)
____% of cancers appear avoidable 80-90
the kinds of cancers children get are the most curable (not carcinomas)
'omics profiles which genes are expressed in normal cells & in specific cancer cells
Gleevec blocks binding of substrate to mutant ABL cells (leukemia)
small molecule drug active area binds to site thru non-covalent interactions (in place of normal ligand)
the process of anti-cancer drug discovery recently has begun to employ compound libraries produced through combinatorial chemistry
targets vs. drugs targets are enzymes, drugs enter plasma membrane
drug resistance is a constant problem in anticancer therapy that can be addressed by giving patients multiple drugs that inhibit 2 or 3 oncoproteins found in a particular cancer
4 types of macromolecules saccharides, proteins, membranes, nucleic acids
electronegativity of an atom refers to how strongly it attracts and holds electrons
what protein groups clash and what angle can remedy it? C=O and R groups; psy angle
most peptides are in what conformation? trans (1000:1) ratio trans:cis
what amino acid contradicts the cis/trans rule? proline (4:1 trans:cis) -> steric strain b/w ring structure and other alpha carbon
carbon compound functional groups have properties largely determined by how they interact with water molecules
for rxn a->b, what is the effect of decreasing the enthalpy of b 2x relative to a? there will be more b than a at equilibrium
for rxn a->b, what is the effect of decreasing the entropy of b 2x relative to a? there will be more a than b at equilibrium
for rxn a->b w/ A 3x b delta G will be negative
the polar/nonpolar nature of amino acid R groups are difficult to measure using free amino acids because of the polar amino and carboxy groups at each end
how to measure polarity of R groups but R groups alone in water and organic solvent
what is true w/ respect to amino acid composition proteins w/ different functions usually differ significantly in their amino acid composition
most important contribution to a protein's conformation is entropy increase from the decrease in ordered water molecules forming a solvent shell around it
what pairs of bonds w/in a peptide show free rotation? Ca-C and N-Ca
Created by: melaniebeale