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US hist ch 1

An Unfinished Nation-Chapter 1

Incas From Peru. Complex political system, and paved roads. Had a single government.
Mayas Central America and on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Built a sophisticated culture with a written language, a numerical system similar to the Arabic, an accurate calendar, and an advanced agricultural system. Succeeded by the Aztecs.
Aztecs Succeeded the Mayas. developed a harsh religion that required human sacrifice.
Tenochtitlán Aztec capital
Greatest food resources of any area of North America belonged to what area? Easter third of what is now the US.
Cahokia Indian trading center located near present-day St. Louis
Changes which encouraged Europeans to look toward new lands. Rapid population growth, and new governments that were more united and powerful than previously.
Preeminent maritime power in 15th Century Portugal
1st to Encounter "New World" Spain
Christopher Columbus Niña,Pinta, and Santa Maria. 1492. Landed in Bahamas, then encountered Cuba, and assumed he had reached China. On 2nd voyage left short-lived colony on Hispaniola. 1498, reached the mainland of South America.
Vasco de Balboa crossed Isthmus of Panama, & became first known European to gaze westward upon the Pacific.
Ferdinand Magellan traveled the strait that now holds his name, and proceeded to the Philippines. Died in a conflict with the natives, but his expedition continued without him to become first to circumnavigate the globe.
Hernando Cortés led a small military expedition against Aztecs, and their emperor Montezuma. 1st assault failed, but exposed natives to smallpox making their 2nd assault an easy success.
Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas in Peru.
1st Spanish settlers in America were only interested in what the American stores of gold and silver.
St. Augustine, Florida 1st permanent settlement in U.S.
Encomiendas the right to exact tribute and labor from the natives on large tracts of land. Granted to favored Spaniards.
Catastrophic Cultural Exchanges 1st and most profound was the importation of European diseases to the New World. On Hispaniola population dropped from 1 million to around 500. In Mexico, as much as 95% perished within a few years of contact.
Savages uncivilized peoples who could be treated as somehow not fully human.
Beneficial Cultural Exchanges Europeans introduced (sugar, bananas, cattle, pigs, sheep, and the horse). Natives taught agricultural techniques. Europeans discovered (corn, squash, beans, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and potatoes).
Mestizos people of mixed race
When did slaves from Africa begin being imported by European settlers? As early as 1502.
Where did most African slaves come from? a large region below the Sahara, known as Guinea
Matrilineal Tracing heredity through and inheriting property from their mothers. African families tended to be matrilineal.
Slave trade in 16th Century market for slaves increased as a result of the growing European demand for sugar cane. By 1700, slavery had spread into the English colonies to the north.
John Cabot sailed to the Northeastern coast of North America on an expedition sponsored by King Henry VII, in an unsuccessful search for a northwest passage through the New World to the Orient.
Incentives for Colonization interest in colonization grew in part as a response to social and economic problems in 16th century England. Costly European wars, and religious strife within their own land. Food supply declined as population was growing.
Mercantilism the belief that one person or nation could grow rich only at the expense of another, and that a nation's economic health depended, therefore, on selling as much as possible to foreign lands and buying as little as possible from them.
Religious Motives of Colonization resulted from the Protestant Reformation.
Martin Luther challenged some of the basic practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church. Was excommunicated by the Pope, and began leading his followers to leave the Catholic Church entirely.
John Calvin "predestination" Rejected the belief that human behavior could affect one's prospects of salvation.
Calvinism Believed the way they led their lives might reveal their chances of salvation. Calvinism produced a strong incentive to lead virtuous, productive lives.
Puritans Calvinists in England
Hueguenots Calvinists in France
King Henry VII was refused a divorce by the Pope, and broke Europe's ties with the Catholic Church in response.
Elizabeth I severed Europe's ties with the Catholic Church for good.
Separatists The most radical Puritans. Were determined to worship in their own independent congregations.
Death of Elizabeth I Puritan discontent grew rapidly after Elizabeth's death, the last of the Tudors, and the ascension of James I, first of the Stuarts.
James I convinced that kings ruled by divine right, James taxed Puritans, favored English Catholics, and supported "high-church" forms of ceremony.
England's 1st experience with colonization Ireland. Long, brutal process to attempt to subdue the Irish led to the assumption that settlements in foreign lands must retain a rigid separation from the native populations.
1st French Settlement Quebec. French formed close ties with natives, lived among them, and married Indian women.
1st Permanent English settlement Jamestown, Virginia. Sir Walter Raleigh founded Jamestown, and named it Virginia, in honor of Elizabeth, who was known as the "Virgin Queen."
English settlements 1st-Jamestown, VA 2nd-Plymouth Roanoke
Roanoke settlement on island off of NC. When supplies were brought back, island was deserted. Only clue was cryptic inscription "Croatoan" carved on a post.
London Group Got exclusive right to colonize the south
Plymouth Merchants Got exclusive right to colonize the north
Created by: marsda2003