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RECONSTRUCTION The reorganization and rebuilding of the former Confederate States after the Civil War.
SHARECROPPING Rented a plot of land and shared a percentage of crops with land owners.
SEGREGATION/JIM CROW LAWS Segregated or separated people by race in public places.
PLESSY VS. FERGUSON Supreme Court rules that segregation was constitutional as long as facilities were equal (Separate but equal)>
13TH AMENDMENT Law that slavery was illegal
14TH AMENDMENT Law that all people born in the US are citizens (entitled to "equal protection of the law" and "due process"
15TH AMENDMENT Law that gave voting rights to African American men ("the right to vote shall not be denied on the basis of race")
KU KLUX KLAN Worked to keep blacks and white republicans out of office. They used threats and violence.
POLL TAX Had to pay a tax to vote.
LITERACY TESTS Had to be able to read a section of the Constitution in order to vote.
GRANDFATHER CLAUSE If a voter's father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1, 1867, then they were excused from the literacy test.
WESTWARD EXPANSION California Gold Rush (1849), Homestead Act (1862), & Completion of transcontinental railroad (1869).
TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD Stretched from the East Coast to the West Coast. It was faster, cheaper, and safer way to get to the West. Created expansion and opened up more jobs for others.
HOMESTEAD ACT 1862 - provided free land to settlers who agreed to farm it for at least 5 years
RESERVATIONS An area of public lands set aside for Native Americans.
DAWES ACT Tried to bring Native Americans into white culture by breaking up reservations and trial groups.
NATIONAL GRANGE 1870 - The first farmers organization in the United States. To boost farm prices and reduce RR shipping rates.
POPULIST PARTY 1890 - Farmers labor union - helped with falling prices, higher railroad rates, income tax, 8 hour work day, and limited immigration.
INDUSTRIALIZATION The development of industry on an extensive scale.
RAILROAD BARONS Owners of large companies who became more powerful and used unfair techniques to earn profits.
INVENTIONS Helped change the everyday life of Americans (ex: telephone, plane and car).
HENRY FORD Was the first to use the assembly line to help make the cars.
HENRY FORD Assembly Line and Mass Production
ASSEMBLY LINE Method of production in which workers add parts to build a product.
MASS PRODUCTION The production of large quantities of goods using machinery and often an assembly line.
CORPORATION Business owned by investors
STOCK Raises money for a business through sale of stock. The investor becomes a shareholder.
MONOPOLY Total control of a type of industry by one person or one company. Eliminates competition and prices. Less innovation and variety.
JOHN ROCKEFELLER Monopoly of steel industry (was important for the Railroad industry)
ANDREW CARNEGIE Monopoly of oil industry
IMMIGRATION Leaving a country permanently.
URBANIZATION The movement from farms to cities.
NEW IMMIGRANTS Between 1880 and 1921 - they came from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia & Latin America, Catholic and Jewish.
PUSH FACTORS Famine (Ireland), Lack of jobs, Lack of land, political & religious persecution (Jews), poverty and hardship revolution.
STEERAGE The bottom portion of the ship where 3rd class immigrants traveled.
ASSIMILATION The process of becoming similar to another culture.
ELLIS ISLAND Where immigrants on the East Coast arrived in America.
ANGEL ISLAND Where immigrants on the West coast arrived in America.
NATIVISM Person who wanted to limit new immigrants to Pride in one's country. The U.S. The belief that America should be preserved for the white protestants (Old Immigrants).
CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT 1883 - was a 60 year exclusion of all Chinese laborers to the US which ended in 1943.
TENEMENTS Buildings that were divided up into small apartments. Many had no heat, windows, or indoor bathrooms.
SETTLEMENT HOUSES A community center which offered services to the poor.
GILDED AGE Because of the rich living in extravagant wealth and the terrible poverty that existed in this time period.
PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT 1876 - 1914 time period
PROGRESSIVE A person who wants to improve society (social, economic & political).
REGULATION OF BIG BUSINESS Sherman Anti-Trust Act and Interstate Commerce Act.
SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT Made trusts and monopolies illegal
INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT Regulated Railroads - made pooling illegal
CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION Take tests for many government jobs (based on merit-ability) - Pendleton Act
CONSUMER ISSUES Meat Inspection Act, "The Jungle" & Pure Food and Drug Act
THE JUNGLE A book written by Upton Sinclair about the conditions of meat factories (A Muckraker)
MEAT INSPECTION ACT Forced meat packers to open their doors to government inspectors
PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT Required food and drug makers to list ingredients on packages and tried to end use of impure ingredients. Made false advertising illegal.
GRADUATED INCOME TAX Taxes people from different income levels at different rates. 16th Amendment - gave Congress the power to impose a federal income tax.
POLITICAL REFORMS Primary, Initiative, Referendum, & Recall.
PRIMARY Voters select candidates
INITIATIVE Voters can propose bills
REFERENDUM Voters can vote on certain bills directly (often local issues).
RECALL Voters can remove elected officials from office (rare).
CONSERVATION Protecting of natural resources - Some areas left wilderness, lumber companies (replaced tress), and limit mining.
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT/PROHIBITION The banning of the making and selling of alcohol.
NAACP Tried to gain rights for African Americans
W.E.B. DUBOIS/BOOKER T. WASHINGTON People who tried to gain rights for African Americans.
IMPERIALISM The domination of a less powerful nation by a more powerful nation (World Bully)
CAUSES OF IMPERIALISM Desire for: new overseas markets, natural resources, to increase American power, to acquire overseas Naval Bases, and to spread American culture.
CAUSES OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Economic Ties, Yellow Journalism, and the USS Maine.
ECONOMIC TIES US had sugar plantations in Cuba.
YELLOW JOURNALISM Newspapers exaggerated Spain's involvement which inflamed public opinion. Make news sound more interesting then it really was (USS Maine)
USS MAINE An American ship that was blown up by an unknown cause killing 266 men.
ROUGH RIDERS First US Voluntary Cavalry. Won the battle of San Juan Hill and the next day they began a siege of Santiago.
RESULTS OF SPANISH/AMERICAN WAR Puerto Rico became a territory of the US and all American citizenship was granted to puerto ricans. Guam became a territory of the US. Philippines gained possession & control transferred to the US.
AMERICAN ACTIONS IN JAPAN US wanted to expand its power in Asia. Japan began to ignore the Open Door Policy. Send 4 warships to put pressure on Japan in 1854 and Japan agreed to opened trade with US. Treaty of Kanagawa.
TREATY OF KANAGAWA Japan opened certain ports for US to trade in. Shipwrecked sailors cannot be confined and must be treated fairly.
AMERICAN ACTION IN CHINA Spheres of Influence, Open Door Policy & Boxer Rebellion
SPHERES OF INFLUENCE Sections of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers
OPEN DOOR POLICY Guaranteed equal trading rights for all spheres open to all countries. US did not want to be left out of trade with China.
BOXER REBELLION Secret society of marital artists. Their goal was to rid the country of the "foreign devils". They attacked and trapped foreigners in the capital of Bejing.
RESULTS OF ACTION IN CHINA Continued to expand its Open Door Policy, but stressed the importance of maintaining China's independence and respecting its borders.
RESULTS OF ACTION IN HAWAII Missionaries went there to establish sugar cane plantations, schools and a new alphabet. State was annexed and became a territory of the US. Take over was forceful.
RESULTS OF ACTION IN ALASKA Bought for 7.2 million. People thought this was a very cold place and was not useful. This land was valuable for farming, gold, petroleum, and natural gas.
BIG STICK POLICY 1904 - Roosevelt - Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far. "Roosevelt Corollary". Don't take no for an answer. US began to act as an international police power.
PANAMA CANAL US bought the least from the French for $40 million and negotitated a treaty with Columbia that gave the US a lease of the land. People of this country revolted before this because they believed the US would support them.
WORLD WAR I 1914-1918. War involving the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.
CAUSES OF WWI Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism, Imperialism, & Assassination
MILITARISM The policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war. Used to make their armies stronger.
ALLIANCES Friendship between two countries. Used to protect their countries.
NATIONALISM Pride in one's nation. Used to have bragging rights to say who is better.
IMPERIALISM One country tried to conquer everything (World Bully). Used so that countries can get more land.
ASSASSINATION When the Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist while in Bosnia.
ZIMMERMANN TELEGRAM Germany asked Mexico to attack the US if they joined the War. In exchange, Germany would hlep them regain lost land. Britain intercepted this message and told the US.
ALLIED POWERS Serbia, Russia, France & Britain
CENTRAL POWERS Austria-Hungary & Germany
1917 Year US joined WWI
SUBMARINE WARFARE Germany did not want the US aiding Britain so they blew up ships. This violated the Freedom of the Seas. They were only allowed to stop and search, but not attach a neutral ship.
LUSITANIA A British passenger ship that the German's torpedo off the coast of Ireland. US was angered because there was 128 Americans that were killed.
PROPAGANDA Articles or pictures used to persuade citizens to help the war front efforts.
MAKE THE WORLD "SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY" Woodrow Wilson felt that if we did not stop Germany's actions, most of Europe would not be Democratic.
SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT 1917 - It authorized the "Selective Service" of men 21-30 years of age for the duration of the War (draft).
FOOD CONSERVATION People would conserve food to help support the home-front effort. Also, created Victory Gardens to grow vegetables, fruits and herbs.
LIBERTY BONDS A War bond sold in the US to support the home-front effort.
WOMEN/MINORITIES AT WORK Took the place of men in factories and made supplies for the soldier in war.
SEDITION AND ESPIONAGE ACTS Illegal to criticize the government during WWI.
FOURTEEN POINTS Wilson made this to try and avoid future conflicts by allowing nations to discuss problems. Ex: Peace of the Seas and Reduce weapons.
TREATY OF VERSAILLES The treaty that France, Italy, and Britain used to punish Germany and make them take responsibility. Germany was forced to reduce their land, take blame, and pay war reparations.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS The Treaty of Versailles incorporated this Most of the countries rejected the Treaty because they thought it was too harsh, others too soft and others just wanted to stay out of World Affairs. US rejected this and without the US it was not effective.
Created by: desilva13