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FSHN 350 Unit 1

QuestionAnswer
what experiment made nutrition into a science? Single Grain Experiment (cows fed with wheat, corn, oats, or a combination)
DRI (dietary reference intake) consists for 4 different reference in takes EAR; RDA; AI; UL
EAR (estimated average requirement) the amount of a nutrient projected to meet the needs of 50% of americans
RDA (recommended dietary allowance) amount of a nutrient sufficient to meet the needs of nearly all healthy individuals (values are high; possibly too high for many people)
AI (adequate intake) the amount of a nutrient determined when RDA cannot be determined
UL (upper tolerable limit) the highest average intake likely to pose no toxicity in the general population
four nutritional status indicators (A, B, C, D) anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, dietary intake
anthropometric assessment weight, BMI, waist circumference; can be inaccurate
biochemical assessment blood, urine, fecal measures; invasive, fasting required (fewest limitations)
clinical assessment observe fingernails, hair, etc.; must be overtly deficient
dietary intake assessment diet recall, history, record; people can lie/alter their diet
diseases w/ modest nutritional component linked to nutrition, but also linked to other things (osteoporosis)
diseases w/ strong nutritional component diet is one of the largest influences (type II diabetes)
diseases w/ single nutritional abnormality specific to a nutrient (iron deficiency anemia)
kilocalorie energy raise 1000 grams of water 1 degree celsius
gross energy value of macronutrients (heat of combustion); CHO= 4.15; Fat= 9.40; Protein= 5.65
digestible energy of macronutrients CHO= 4, fat= 9, protein= 5.2
why is there a discrepancy b/w digestible and metabolizable energy for protein? the body cannot oxidize nitrogen; needs energy to form urea to excrete it
metabolism (definition) the sum of all chemical reactions through which the body breaks down and builds up molecules within the 10 trillion cells
anabolic reactions building up; (forming glycogen)
catabolic reactions energy yielding reactions that breaks down larger molecules
condensations reactions aka dehydrations synthesis; anabolic
hydrolysis reactions large molecule broken w/ water; catabolic
FAD and NAD are what? coenzymes that transport electrons during metabolic reactions
substrate the substance acted upon by an enzyme
cofactor substances necessary for an enzyme to function
two types of enzymes inducible, constitutive
inducible enzymes only expressed under conditions in which it will be used
constitutive enzymes produced all the time
four means of regulating enzymes concentration, compartmentation, covalent modification, allosteric regulation
covalent enzyme regulation attachment of another molecule (phosphate) to an enzyme
allosteric alteration of enzymes inhibition/activation to turn active site on or off
peroxisomes contain oxidases, participate in ethanol metabolism
substrate level phosphorylation direct transfer of a phosphate to ADP from a phosphorylated intermediate
oxidative phosphorylation requires oxygen; occurs during electron transport chain
digestion versus absorption digestion= breaking down into smaller molecules; absorption= putting those molecules into circulation
four processes that "happen" to the food we eat digestion, absorption, transport, elimination
Alexis St. Martin fur trader; shot in stomach; W. Beaumont put things into his stomach and revolutionized how digestion was understood
accessory organs liver, pancreas, gallbladder
3 functions of GI tract chemical/mechanical breakdown, absorption, barrier to entry of bacteria
cephalic phase of digestion 20% of gastric secretions; contractions (hunger pangs)
enteric nervous system part of the parasympathetic NS; communicates thru the vagus nerve to control paristalsis w/out CNS involvement
chemoreceptors detect changes in the chemical composition of the luminal comtent
mechanoreceptors detect stretching or distension in the walls of the GI tract
three major enzymes in saliva salivary amylase, salivary lipase, and lysosymes (inhibit bacterial growth in the mouth)
chewing aka mastication
pH of the stomach 1-2
pH of blood 7.35-7.45
intrinsic factor found in the stomach; necessary for B12 absorption
3 enzymes found in gastric juice pepsin, amylase, lipase
speed of gastric emptying 1-5 mL chyme 2x per minute (completed 2-6 hours after a meal)
2 functions of the colon fluid/electrolyte/nutrient absorption; storage and elimination of solid waste
pancreas function stores enzymes in inactive form (bicarbonate, digestive enzymes)
liver function produces and secretes bile; first site of filtration after the SI
gallbladder function stores bile (signaled by CCK)
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease-> occurs when abdominal pressure is too high or defective esophageal sphincter
nutritional recommendations for GERD decrease fat, alcohol, acidic intake; lose weight
drugs for GERD proton pump inhibitors, over the counter bicarbonate buffers
ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori
inflammatory bowel diseases (2) ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease (cause unknown; treatments for inflammation)
absorption compromised by imflammatory bowel diseases because (3) reduced brush border activity, decreased transit time, damage to absorptive cells
celiac disease gluten triggers immune response and immune cells attack mucosa cells
future treatments for celiac disease enzyme supplementation, probiotics, polymeric binders
how many microbes in the body? 100 trillion; 3 lbs
the breakdown of carbohydrate and protein by bacteria is an anaerobic process called fermentation
ways microbes are good for nutrition (5) amino acid synthesis, B/K vitamin synthesis, immune, metabolize carcinogens, make short chain FAs
Human Microbiome Project map the complete set of genes in all bacteria
lack of bacteria in early life can lead to allergies
infants exposed to antibiotics in the 1st 6m are more likely to be overweight (correlation; not causation)
if you treat mice w/ bacteria from a pregnant woman... they become fat
Clostridium Difficile results from antibiotic use; best option is fecal transplant
man w/ lowest drinking tolerance had brewer's yeast in his intestines (had a fecal transplant)
prebiotic foods promote growth of nonpathogenic bacteria (high fiber)
mice twin study obese microbiota= fat mouse; thin microbiota= thin mouse *of cohoused, they both remain thin
Created by: melaniebeale