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Chapter 16


Conquistador conquerors
Immunity resistance
Alliance agreement between two or more powers.
Civil war a fight between two groups of people in the same nation.
Viceroy representative
Plantation large estates run by an owner or the owner's overseer.
Encomienda the right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans.
Peon workers force to labor for a landlord in order to pay off a debt.
Peninsular people born in Spain.
Creole American-born descendants of Spanish settlers.
Mestizo people of Native American and European descent.
Mulatto people of African and European descent.
Privateer pirates operated with the approval of European Governments.
Missionary people spreading Christianity to Native Americans.
Revenue income from taxes
Compact an agreement among people.
Triangular trade a three-legged trade network.
Repeal cancel
Monopoly gold mining and the slave trade.
Inflation the rise of prices is linked to the increase of the amount of money.
Capitalism economic system ran by profit.
Entrepreneur Someone who takes risks to make profit.
Joint stock company a company or association consisting of individuals organized to conduct a business for gain and having a joint stock of capital.
Mercantilism the theory or practice of mercantile pursuits
Tariff taxes on items shipped over seas.
Tainos grew corn, yams, and cotton, which they wove into cloth.
Hernan Cortes conquistador that landed on the coast of Mexico in 1519.
Malinche a young Indian woman who served as Hernan's translator.
Moctezuma the Aztec emperor.
Francisco Pizarro captured Atahualpa and killed his followers.
Atahualpa became emperor after his brother died.
Council of the Indies a council that passes laws for the colonies.
Bartolome de las Casas a bold priest that commended the evils of the encomienda system.
New Laws of the Indies passed in 1542, forbidding enslavement of Native Americans.
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz Refused admission to the University of Mexico.
Samuel de Champlain explorer, geographer, and mapmaker, built the first french settlement.
Louis XIV a french king set out to strengthen royal power and boost revenues.
Jamestown The first permanent colony of the English.
Pilgrims English settlers
Mayflower Compact an agreement among the people of the Mayflower.
French and Indian war The war between the french and the Indians.
Treaty of Paris officially ended world-wide war.
Middle Passage The slaves were transported to the West Indies.
Asante emerged in the area occupied by modern Ghana.
Usman dan Fodio denounced corruption of the local Hausa rulers.
Boer held to a Calvinist belief.
Shaka a ruthless and brilliant leader
Great Trek several Boer families joined to this.
Columbian Exchange a vast global exchange started by Columbus.
commercial revolution a revolution with economic consequences for Europe.
"putting-out" system a merchant capitalist distributed raw wool to peasant cottages.