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Micro Quiz 1

Micro Quiz 1 NWHSU

QuestionAnswer
What immunity has: immediate reaction, fast response, aka 1st line of defense? Innate Immunity
Give some examples of innate immunity? Macrophages, Mucous, Nose hair, NON-SPECIFIC, skin
What immunity takes time to develop, slow? Acquired immunity
Give some examples of acquired immunity? B-cells, cytotoxic cells, helper T cells, immunologic memory cells, vaccines, SPECIFIC
Define first line of defense? INNATE immunity- (1)Physical barriers (skin/mucous)(2)Chemical barriers
Define second line of defense? INNATE immunity (NON-specific)- (1)Phagocytic cells, regulated cells, leukocytes (2)Biochemical responses (complement, inflammation)
Define third line of defense? Acquired immunity
What are the 3 specific immune cells? T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, plasma cell
What are dendritic cells? Present in skin at birth but similar to macrophages)
Basophils stain? Stain blue with basic dye methylene blue
Eosinophils stain? Stain red/orange with the acidic dye eosin
Neutrophils stain? Stain lilac with a mixture of acidic and basic dyes
Monocytes do what? Leave the blood and mature into macrophages *Agranulocytes
What are 4 Monocytes and where are they found? (1)Langerhans cells-epidermis (2)Alveolar macrophages-lungs (3)Microglia-CNS (4)Kupffer cells-liver
Lymphocytes do what? Most involved in specific immunity (3rd line of defense) *Agranulocytes
Allergies and parasitic worm infections increase what? Increase eosinophil count
Bacterial diseases increase what? Increase leukocyte count
Viral infections increase what? Increase lymphocyte
Define Eosinophils 2nd line of defense? Mainly attack parasitic helminthes by attaching to their surface. Secrete toxins that weaken or kill the helminth *NONphagocytic killing*
What are the 5steps in phagocytosis that occur in 2nd line of defense? (1)Chemotaxis (2)Adherence (3)Ingestion (4)Phagosome maturation/microbe killing (5)Elimination
Define Natural killer lymphocytes 2nd line of defense ? Secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells and tumors *NON phagocytic*
Define Neutrophils during 2nd line of defense? Can generate reactive oxygen species & NET (neutrophil extracellular traps)
In Nonspecific chemical defense, lysozyme do what? Lyses peptidoglycan (-polysaccharide in bacterial cell wall)
In Nonspecific chemical defense, Defensins do what Inflammation increase the production of defensing & acts against pathogens in various ways
What are the ways in which defensins behave? (1)punch holes in microbial (2)inhibits specific metabolic activity (3)inhibit intracellular signaling (4)inhibit heat-stress proteins
These receptors are transmembrane signal receptor proteins that are found in many cells of the immune system and cells that are NOT part of the immune system, recognize PAMPs? Toll-like receptors
These receptors also recognize PAMPs, found inside the cell, trigger inflammation & apoptosis? NOD proteins (nucleotide binding)
What are some various types of pyrogens in relation to fever? Fragments of microorg, bacterial toxins, IL-1, INF-gamma, antibody-antigen complex
Benefits of fever include? Enhances effects of interferon's, inhibits growth of some microorg, may enhance performance of phagocytes, cells of specific immunity, process of tissue repair
This results when chemical substance called ___ trigger the hypothalamus to increase the bodys core temp (fever) Pyrogen
What cytokine singles among leukocytes? Interleukins (ILs)
What cytokine is an antiviral and anticancer protein that may act as cytokines? Interferons (IFNs)
What cytokine are proteins that stimulate stem cells to divide, maintaining an adequate supply of leukocytes? Growth factors
What cytokine secreted by macrophages and Tcells to kill tumor calls and regulate immune responses and inflammation? Tumor necrosis factors (TNFs)
What cytokine signal leukocytes to go to a site of inflammation or infection and stimulate other leukocytes? Chemokines
Antigens are recognized by specific or nonspecific? SPECIFIC
Antigens interact with? Antibodies, Bcells & Tcells receptors
What lymphocyte arises and matures in red bone marrow, found in spleen/lymph nodes/MALT? B lymphocytes
What are the major functions of Blymphocytes? Antibody productions, immunologic memoryy, regulation of the immune response
AKA as immunoglobulins (Ig). They are soluble, proteiancceous molecules that bind antigen? Antibodies
Antibodies are responsible for what 7 things? 1-Neutralization 2-Opsonization 3-Oxidation 4-Aggultination 5-Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity 5-Stimulation of inflammation 6-Activation of complement
How does Opsonization function? Talks to 2nd line of defense
How does oxidation function? Antibodies_bacterial cells=reactive oxygen species
How does Agglutination work? Taking mobility away
HOw does antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity work? Natural killer lymphocytes up regulated
How does stimulation of inflammation work? Leads to attraction of phagocytic cells which leads to elimination of pathogens
What are the 5 classes of Immunoglobulins? 1-IgG 2-IgA 3-IgM 4-IgE 5-IgD
Where is IgG & IgE located? Serum, mast cell surfaces
Where is IgA located? (Monomer)Serum, (Dimer)tears, milk, saliva-mucus membrane secretions
Where is IgM located? Serum, B cell surfaces
Where is IgD located? B cell surface
Where do Tlympocytes originate? Red bone marrow and mature in the thymus
Where do Tlympocytes circulate? In the lymph and blood->migrate to the lymph nodes, spleen, and peyers patches
T/F: Tlympocytes are cell mediated immune response? True
Helper Tcells (TH, Th, T4, CD4) secrete? Various cytokines
Th1 modulate ___ Tcell response and are associated with interleukin __ Cytotoxic / 2
Th2 modulate ___ immune response and are associated with interleukin__ Humoral / 4
Major histocompatibility complex communicates (binds to) with? T cells
MCH-I is distributed to? All nucleated cells
MHC-I functions? Presentation of intracellular antigens
MCH-I outcomes? Increase Tc response, self recognition, transplant rejection
MCH-II is distributed to? Antigen presenting cells, macrophages, dendritic, Blymphocytes
MCH-II functions? presentation of foreign antigens to Tlymphocytes
MCH-II outcomes? Increase humoral immune response (and possible increase in Tc response)
___ plays a major role in presenting self antigens MCH-I
Define clonal deletion? Lymphocytes editing by clonal deletion via apoptosis
Define cell-Mediated immune response? Targets cells containing intracellular pathogens (mainly viruses and bacteria)
Primary response of immunological memory, IgM appears how many days later? 5-7 days
Primary response of immunological memory, IgG appears how many days later? Day 15
Primary response of immunological memory, when does humeral response appear? Almost 2 weeks later
The natural active acquired immunity involves? Immunological memory due to change encounter
The natural passive acquired immunity involves? Antibodies but NO memory, IgG-thru placenta, IgA-thru mothers milk
The artificial active acquired immunity involves? Immunological memory do to vaccination- injection of an antigen
The artificial passive acquired immunity involves? Injection of antibody, NO memory
Define active immunization? Injection of antigen->immunologic memory
Define passive immunization? Injection of antibodies->NO immunologic memory
What are the 3 types of vaccines? 1-Attenuated 2-Inactive(killed) 3-Toxoid
Attenuated vaccines are also called? Modified live vaccines.
Attenuated vaccines contain? Replicating microbes that can stimulate a strong immune response due to the large number of antigen molecules
Advantage of attenuated vaccine? Vaccinated individuals can infect those around them "contact immunity"
3 Disadvantages of attenuated vaccine? 1-May retain enough virulence to cause disease 2-Not for prego's 3-Modified viruses may revert back to mild types
Define inactivated whole agent vaccines? Reactivated (killed) micfroorganism
Define inactivated subunit vaccines? Fragments of microorganisms
4 disadvantages with inactivated vaccines? 1-May stimulate inflammatory response 2-Antigenically weak 3-formaldehyde is commonly used to inactivate microbes 4-High/mult doses may produce allergic reaction
Advantage of inactivated vaccines? 1-Safer than live vaccines 2-cant replicate or mutate virulent form
T/F: IN inactivated vaccines, administration in high or multiple does, with adjuvant can make the vaccine more effective? TRUE
What are adjuvants? Substances that increase the antigenicity of the vaccine
Common adjuvants? Aluminum phosphate, saponin, mineral oil
Define Toxoid vaccines? Modified toxins-chemically/thermally/genetically
Toxoid vaccines stimulate? A humoral immune response
Disadvantage of toxoid vaccine? 1-Mult doses bc they posses few antigenic determinates
Advantage of toxoid vaccine? Useful for some bacterial diseases
Protection from a disease provided to a population when pathogen cannot spread bc the majority of members of that population have immunity, known as? Heard Immunity
Define passive immunotherapy? Protection from certain illness exposure to toxin-Reactive NOT preventive
When is passive immunotherapy used? A recent infection or ongoing disease is needed quickly
Serum used for passive immunizations is called? Antiserum
Antisera may be contaminated with __ pathogens viral
Antibodies of antisera are __ quickly Degraded
Repeated injections of antisera can trigger? an allergic response
Many limitations of antisera have been overcome by? Hybridomas-Monoclonal antibodies( invitro)
What are agglutination test? Cross linking of antibodies with particular antigens
Define titration? Highest dilution where precipitate is visible
DEfine neutralization test? test for previous exposure, immunity - detection of antibodies against specific virus
Two neutralization test? viral neutralization test, viral hemagglutination inhibition
Monocytes leave the blood and mature into? macrophages
___most involved in specific immunity? Lymphocytes
Agranulocytes: Langerhans cells found in? epidermis
Agranulocytes: Alveolar macrophages found in? Lungs
Agranulocytes: Microgila found in? CNS
Agranulocytes: Kupffer cells found in? Liver
Process of 2nd line of defense, PHAGOCYTOSIS: 1-Chemotaxis 2-adherence 3-ingestion 4-phagosome maturation and microbial killing 5-elimination
Created by: wizdumbslp