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Key People

Key people in the 19th century society. Ch 25. Social reform, education, press

leading protestant advocate of the "social gospel" who tried to make Christianity relevant to urban and industrial problems. Formed the Brotherhood of the Kingdom. Works:Christianity & the Social Crisis, Theology for the Social Gospel Walter Rauschenbusch
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel. A writer whose newspaper columns & many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement. Works:Plain Thoughts on Being a Christian, Working People & Their Employers Washington Gladden
Best known for founding the Hull House in Chicago that was dedicated to helping the urban poor. Established day nurseries for working mothers, published reports condemning deplorable housing conditions and taught literacy classes. Jane Addams
Outspoken advocate of child labor legislation and woman. Opened the Henry Street Settlement in New York in 1895 Lillian Wald
Worked at Hull House. Lobbied(1893) for an Ill. anti-sweatshop law. Lifelong battler for the rights of women, children, blacks, & consumers. Moved to the Henry Street Settlement in NY & served for 3 decades as a gen. secretary of the Nat. Consumers League Florence Kelly
Popular Protestant evangelist who brought the tradition of old time revivalism to the industrial city. Gospel of kindness and forgiveness, created the Moody Bible Institute Dwight L. Moody
Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Served as Bishop of Richmond 1872-1877, & as Archbishop of Baltimore. Gibbons was elevated to the cardinal later in 1886, the second American to receive that distinction. Cardinal Gibbons
Founder of Christian Science movement. Author of the movement's textbook, Science & Health with Key to the Scriptures. Also founded the Christian Science Publishing Society based on the principles of spiritual healing. Mary Baker Eddy
English naturalists who wrote Origin of Species; thought higher forms of life evolved from lower forms through mutation and adaptation; came up with the theory of natural selection. "Survival of the fittest" Charles Darwin
Ex-slave; worked hard to go to school; became the head of a normal & industrial school at Tuskegee, AL. Taught useful trades (to gain self-respect & economic security); believed that one should make themselves useful in order to go against white supremacy Booker T. Washington
Harvard educated scholar & advocate of full black social & economic equality through the leadership of a talented tenth. W.E.B. DuBois
Young chemist who became president of Harvard College & launched a program of electives to better meet the practical demands of an industrial society. Dr. Charles Eliot
Acclaimed as one of the most brilliant philosophers yet produced in America, served 35 years on the Harvard faculty & was the proponent of the philosophical concept known as pragmatism. William James
Though expelled from Harvard, he was able to draw on his father's mining millions to build a newspaper empire at the turn of the century which was used to practice yellow journalism & sensationalism. William Rudolph Hearst
Hungarian-born journalistic tycoon who at the turn of the century became a leader in the techniques of sensationalism while at the helm of the New York World. Featured the "Yellow Kid" Joseph Pulitzer
Irish-born critic, launched the "Nation", a liberal & intellectual journal; crusaded for civil-service reform, honest govt & moderate tariff; believed that if he could reach the right amount of small people, ideas could reach to many more people Edwin L. Godkin
Wrote Progress & Poverty which examined the relationship between those two concepts. His theory was that "progress" pushed land values up and thus increased poverty amongst many. Henry George
Pub. the novel Looking Backward. It's character fell asleep & awoke in the year 2000 to an ideal society. His solution was that the govt. had taken over all business, communist/socialist-style, & everything was rosy. Edward Bellamy
Wrote about 650 dime novels & became rich. Harlan F. Halsey
Wrote Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ. It countered Darwinism with faith in Christ & sold 2 million copies. General Lewis Wallace
Wrote rags-to-riches stories, usually about a good boy that made good. They all championed the virtues of honesty & hard work that lead to prosperity and honor. Horatio Alger
Revised his classic "Leaves of Grass." He also wrote "O Captain! My Captain!", inspired by Lincoln's assassination. Walt Whitman
Became famous as a poet after she died & her writings were found & published. Literary Landmarks. Emily Dickinson
Wrote openly about adultery, suicide, and the ambitions of women in The Awakening (1889). Kate Choplin
United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910) Mark Twain
Co-writer of The Gilded Age, with Mark Twain Charles Dudley Warner
Wrote of the West in his gold rush stories, especially "The Luck of Roaring Camp" & "The Outcasts of Poker Flat." Bret Harte
Editor of Atlantic Monthly, wrote about common people & controversial social topics. William Dean Howells
Wrote brilliantly & realistically about industrial, urban America in Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893). It told of a girl-turned-prostitute & then suicide.The Red Badge of Courage (1895) about a Civil War soldier and his sacrifice. Stephen Crane
Brother of philosopher William James, usually wrote about innocent Americans, normally women, thrown amid Europeans. His best works were Daisy Miller (1879), The Portrait of a Lady (1881), & The Bostonians (1886). Henry James
His novels criticized corrupt business. The Octopus (1901) was about railroad & political corruption & The Pit was about speculators trading in wheat. Frank Norris
A black writer, poet, wrote Lyrics of Lowly Life; brought a new kind of realism Paul Laurence Dunbar
A black writer, fiction writer; wrote short stories in Atlantic Monthly & The Conjure Women; used black dialect & folklore to capture richness of southern black culture Charles W. Chestnutt
"social novelist"; from Indiana. Wrote Sister Carrie (poor working girl in Chicago & New York, becomes mistress, elopes with someone else, makes an acting career) Theodore Dreiser
Believed in free love. Divorcee, occasional stockbroker, feminist propagandist; w/her sister she published Woodhull & Claflin's Weekly. Journal charged that Henry Ward Beecher (famous preacher of the time)was having an adulterous affair Victoria Woodhull
Published a periodical that shocked proper Elizabethan society w/Elizabeth Woodhull. Pushed for women's propaganda. Tennessee Claflin
Preacher, reformer, abolitionist. Helped raise $ to support the New England Emigrant Aid Company in its efforts to keep slavery out of Kansas territory. After war, emerged as best known Protestant minister. Henry Ward Beecher
Vigorous nineteenth century crusader for sexual purity who used federal law to enforce his moral views. Anthony Comstock
A brilliant feminist writer who advocated cooperative cooking & child care arrangements to promote women's economic independence & equality. Charlotte Perkins Gilman
A member of the women's right's movement in. Shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, NY. Read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal." Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A lecturer for women's rights. Quaker. Many conventions were held for the rights of women in the 1840s. A strong woman who believed that men & women were equal. She fought for her rights even though people objected. Susan B. Anthony
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal & a reporter. Became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspired speaker & a brilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage. Carrie Chapman Catt
An African American journalist. Published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcars or shop in white owned stores. Ida B. Wells
Encouraged over one million women to make the world more "homelike", part of the Anti-Saloon League Frances E. Willard
Muscular & anti deranged woman, destroyed saloons in her wild anti drinking crusade. Carrie A. Nation
A reformer & nurse of the 19th century, who founded the American Red Cross in the 1880s. She had organized nursing care for Union soldiers during the Civil War. Clara Barton
2nd president(Federalist) of the US. Responsible for passing the Alien & Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war w/France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien & Sedition Acts, hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself. John Adams
An artist from MA who did much of his work in England. Known for a portrait of his mother. Dropped out of West Point after failing chemistry James Whistler
An American painter in England. Drew flattering but superficial likeness to British nobility that made him "highly prized." John Singer Sargent
Self taught; became America's leading landscapist George Inness
Has a high degree of realism in his paintings (meaning portrait sitters got their flaws in pictures) Thomas Eakins
A painter who was resistant against foreign influences & brought rugged realism & boldness of conception; known for paintings of the sea Winslow Homer
Most gifted American sculptor one of his most moving works is the Robert Gould Shaw memorial Augustus Saint-Gaudens
Colonel in command of the all-black 54th Regiment, which entered the American Civil War in 1863. Colonel Shaw
Chicago architect. Contributed to development of skyscrapers; "form follows function"; helped make sky scrapers popular Louis Sullivan
Architect, distinctive, ornamental style. Style called Richardsonian. High vaulted arches; Marshall Fields in Chicago Henry H. Richardson
Most famous showman of his era. CT Yankee. "The Prince of Humbug"; "Humbugged NYC public w/bearded lady & freaks. Assumed a "sucker" was born ea. min. Several prize hoaxes. Phineas T. Barnum
Began the "Greatest Show on Earth" with Barnum. James A. Bailey
Headed Wild West Shows beginning in 1883, which were distinctively American. William F. ("Buffalo Bill") Cody
Chose his first All-American Team (football). Later the Yale-Princeton game attracted 50k spectators. Walter C. Camp
An American Professional boxer & former World Heavyweight Champion. Best known for defeating the Great John L. Sullivan. Agile "Gentleman Jim" Corbett
Influential democratic editor. "Manifest Destiny" Fought Agile Jim Corbett John L. Sullivan
Invented basketball in 1888. James Naismith
Created by: YouLindaAtSix