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UNIT 4 EXAM

QuestionAnswer
When did expansion take place ? 1400-1500
why did the Iberia Kingdoms explore history with muslims, and had advanced ships and cannons
Why did the Italians choose not to explore monopolized the mediteranean trade since the roman empier
who was the first to explore Portugal or spain Portugal
who is prince harry the navigator captured N. Africa city ceuta imporved compass, cannons, astorbal sagress institution of navigation
Carvel new ship invented for atlantic
How did the Portuguese earn their finance off of African and Saharan trade order of Christ profits in 1400s : slaves and gold
Vasco de gama went from w.africa to india
When did the Spanish start exploring 1492
Treaty of tordesillas line of demarcation made by the pope
Ferdinad Magella portugeuse claims phillipenes
In the 15 century who did west Africa trade with Portugal gold for firearms
Oba of Benin in 1538 closed the market to portugese
Kongo depended on slave trade had nothing else in western Africa
Eastern Africa didn't trade slaves traded of swalij coast
Ethopia and Portugal took out muslims religious loyalty: both Christian had to obey pope
Indian ocean trade was hostile to Portugal
Vasco gama conqured Calicut in 1498 goa 1510 Malacca 1511 Macao 1557
Portuguese regulations cant buy anything
How were the porttugese when conjuring aggressive
Mughal vs ottomans india ( didn't fight) vs Muslim turks ( fought )
Portugal conqured what broke the Italian monopoly on pepper
How did the Spanish conquer diseasl and gun
Arawk hispanida ( hati) gold
antillies carribean Christian control like muslim of spain
Herman corted conqured aztectx with small pox
Fransico Pizzaro conqured with small pox
why were Africans and Asian not cinqured pop disease didn't effect better to trade
In carribean council of indies church and state had no sepration
New laws of 1542 how much land you can control
Atlantic system in Africa 1550- 1800
Spanish economy silver plantation ssugar
French and English economy tobacco Led to : indentured servants, chartered companies
Why did west indian colonies move away from tobacco to sugar virgina monopolized tobacco
Dutch in the Americas developed efficient ways to produce sugar Dutch west indies company
Portugues in 1654 conqured brazil resulted in Dutch spreading info
What caused shift from indentured servants to slaves more profitable European stoped making contracts with west/ east indies but to N America
Tech for sugar simple but expensive neededing more plantation
Enviroment because of sugar deforestation, soil exhaustion, arawk and caribeans died off
West Indian societys wealth land owners then slaves
Slave life specialized - in two tasks quotas- # they must harvest sunday- didn't work tried to make Christian
Slave rebeliions tack in Jamaica 1760 resulted : took away slave freedom
Saint domingue hati gropus: 1. Great whites 2.Little whites 3. free blacks
manumission pourpsley sending slaves free
maroons slaves that ran away produced most of the free blacks
Monopoly of colonial trade Portugal and spain inefficient because couldn't control from far
capitalism ability to privately own resources.land, higher workers for profit
merchanism main goal was to increase a nation's wealth by imposing government regulation concerning all of the nation's commercial interests
Merchantilism on capitalism banks, insurances, joint stock companies,
merchantilism on merchantilism dutch west indian company companies founded by the gov
1652- 1678 angol (England)/ French vs dutch
Slave trade in 17th century chartered ( gov had some say)
slave trade in 18th century private
Europe colonization on Africa none had to honor trading customes
Gold slave coast dahomey, oyo, asanate
How were slaves conqured prisoners of war
Portugues got slaves from angola angola started to drought used illegal people
Islam used slaves as soilders servants and sex slaves
Dutch owned what in Africa for slaves cape colony
Muslims dominace in N. Africa ottomans spread fast in south saharah
Trabsformation in Europe 1500-1750
1500 Catholic Church Prosperity Problem : people couldn't read the bible clergy takes advantage of
German monk martin luther exposes church by the 95 theses started his own church Lutherians
Jhon Calvin started own church strict Christian ways predestination- decied if your going to heaven or hell
What 3 Christians religions don't like each other calviness, Lutheran/protestant, catholic
What are other reasons to join the Lutherans 1.guranteed political power since not connected with the pope 2. not supporting Italy
Catholic reformation council of trent: meeting with clergy to reinvent the catholic church
Society of jesus or jesusists missionaries led to spread in Americas
in 1638 protestant reformation led to religious wars in Europe
What was europes traditional thinking concepts based on judeu-christian beleifs, superstisions, belief in super natural causes which hunts in 1500 and 1600
Hetorcy going against religion
What was the European idea of natural world due to religion,god 4 light elements
Copernicus earth centered model Christian opposition spread in books he didn't believe this model
Galieo telescope agreed with Copernicus
Newton gravity
absolutism king or queen has all authority w. Europe
European gov was influenced by Chinese philosuphers war vs. education
who sparked the enlightment French and English
reformation religious tolerance
who was in opposition during enlightment absolutist rulers and clergy men
The bourgeoisie upper middle class china = gentry
why was their urban growth 1500-1700 stock market
What bourgeoisie thrived in manufacturing, finance, trade (grain) Holland- Netherlands and amseterdam spoke dutch
Netherlands highest growing bourgesois
Monarch and bourgeoisie good relationship
what was the key role of the anglo-dutch war oversea trade
from bourgeois to nobility marriage or purchase
what religion was of the dutch protestant
serfdom declined and increased where declined in w. Europe increase in e.europe and Russia
what contributed to boost in Europeans economy new world crops
High consumption of wood led to deforestation , move new worlds crops= soil exhaustion
Women status now close to men common people and bougesois married late because of availability to get edu no unviersities for women
state development was done by Spanish= catholic
spanished king ruled spain and Portugal and Austrian hepsburg ( Netherlands)
costant warfare protestant and ottoman empier
Spanish rule was split how spain was ruled by king Philip 2 and Austrian hepsburg had another ruler
king Philip 2 ruled spain, believes with god, eco based on silver from peru
spain and france defended against protestants and jews
Henry 8 king of England catholic, wanted a divorce so made a new church church of England (Anglican church)
calvanist resitance in Scotland ( Christian)
England gov parliament vs king
parlment are protestant
queen Elizabeth protestant
tuter family line copperated with parliament
stauurt line dosent cooperate with parliament goes to war
oliver Cromwell protestant becomes new leader, no monarch, or parliament till he dies staurt line restored still dosent agree
glorious revolution 1688 newgov: constiual monarchy William and mary new hand picked king and quuen from Scotland to England signs bill of rights parliament will have ultimate power
France gov absolutist gov by bourbon kings Louis xIV
Versailles new capital of france
What led to military revolution religion and land protestants vs catholics
Millitary revolution led to increase in size, maintatined standard armies except emgland
Management of armies command structures, signal techniques, marching skills
Navy technology cannons English royal navy vs spains armada English becomes most powerful
France has best armie and biggest
England has best navy and biggest
balance of culture a culture were they didn't allow a country to get to powerful only in Europe
war of Spanish succession alli between spain and france
England Austria Prussia vs france stop spain and france alli
Alli with commercial elites spain makes allis with bougeoisi
Netherlands vs. spain for independence spain looses control over Netherlands
Holland commercial intrest
Amsterdam craftsmen
England vs. Dutch for territory over sea England could collect taxes effecintly
France taxing oversea taxing couldn't collect
equistian catholic church to punish hertants ( non-Christians
Gunpowder empiers ottoman, Mughal,Safavid
Ottoman empier 1300-1922 largest and longest empire
expansion of the ottoman in NW Antolia then fought against catholics got Siberia and constanople , eygpt and Syria were added Iran was border
sultant Suleiman the magnificent 1520-1566 ruled during ottomans peak
Ottoman fought venice to get control of the mediteranean for tribute
ottoman relationship with other muslims distant muslim requested help against portugese and didn't help
How were ottoman and muslims diff in slavery ottomans slaved anyone
Ottoman janissaries captured Christian boys for soilders
dev shirme program used for janissaries boys learned from turk family achieved political status
Ottoman cosmopolitan society centralized askeris- high ranking soilder taxfree vizier- local rulers raya ( pack of sheep) payed taxes dependent
religious diversity in 1492 spain migration of religion
Battle of lepanto in 1571 under the rule of sultan eat safavids but lost to Christians
Why did ottoman military start to decrease janissaries are to expensive landholding Turkish cavalry decrease silver an economy inflation spain depends on silver
rebellion in antolia because of lack of money, military readiness decreased since jenarssaries went to busness and enrolled sons
Changes in ottoman instiutions secluded sultan and chief adminastors are away devsharmie discontinued rural areas land grants are now tax fams
ottoman trade decreased europes increased Asian spices are biggest product
Tulip period (1718-1730) luxury goods were a priority traded with Europe
patrona halil rebellion ignore sultan showed weakness of central empire
Mughal empire (1526-1761) established by Turkic warrior Babur and Akbar
Akbar centralized administration non hedietary kand to his military and political muslim
Akbar gave peace to northern heartland and war to hindus and rebels to souther afghans
Trade in Mughal boomed
Mughal conquest of india 75 % were hindu
Sikh religion formed in the Mughal empire combines muslin hindu and zorastinasim
Akbar reconciliation marrys hindu, decreases tax on hindu, creates new religion divine faith , reduces legal discrimination for muslims on hindus
Mughal empire declined land granted system- given to high officals couldn't embrace conqured colonies rise of regional power weak rulers
as Mughal declined rise in independent states nawab- regional leaders prosperous but couldn't defend Europe
joseph Dupliex took over as nawab from Europe left open door for Europe involment
SE asia kingdoms transformed from the mecca and medina cities- traditional rural- non traditional
Muslim ruled Swahili coast but not inner asia
Portuguese conqured what in Africa swahli except malind
the better organized dutch drove portugues out of Malacca
dutch couldn't monopolize spices moved to coffee and wood
China dynasty in order shang, Zhou, quing, han,sui, tang, song, uan, ming, and quing (Manchu)
North Eurasia 1500- 1800 japan, china, Russia
Daiymo japans wealthy land owners
Shogunate most powerful person
Tokugawa shogunate 1603-1800 most powerful family diminished the ashikaga with portugese fierarms
Japan gov decentralized local rulers lead to urban figurehead in Kyoto
Edo made transportation new capital made rodes to contact emperor rice became currency
Smuris became weaker introduction of weapons,
japan merhcants inreases
Japan contact with Europe mostly Portuguese was limited after Jesuits
Jesuits in 1500s limited success in turning catholic were banned in 1649
dutch influence on japan learned tech and language liked dutch because didn't spread religion
Japan trade with asia korea, Okinawa, Taiwan. china, Se asia
outerlords merchants who traded with Europe wealthy
Japan population outskirts were wealthier, trade increases
47 ronin 1702 displays civil law centralized over military
Ming declined in 1644 because economy, no tech improments, climate hurts crops, inflation on silver, low pop growth
Ming collapse border threats- mongol confederation, Korean allies china helped Japanese pirates local rebelions
Lizicheng held rebelions that overthrew ming and Manchu Quing
Quing empire ruled by Manchu family but majority was Chinese
Chinese trading limited access with Portuguese,spanish, and dutch
biggest European trading company dutch east indian ecompany
Quing developed marked points fro trade why china gets payed when foreiners want to sell city of canton
Lord macartney tried to undermine the canton system worsen
china population increased because of new crops environment: deforestation erosion poltians cant control pop
Russian empier made allaimce with quing to weaken mongol isolated Europe then embraced
Russian society diverse lead to conflict
Russian politics nobles overthrew muscorite and replaced with romanor family serfdom increases
peter the great rommanor family, caused westernization, great norther war wth Swedish gets access with W, europw
results in Russia great embassy broke noble power politics control church improve military increased serfdom eastern orthodoz, realist ruler
Catherine the great largest land empire
Russia and japan improved in military
Created by: BB2424