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UND Carb/Amyloid

UND Carb/Amyloid general information

Carbohydrates are commonly what? starches or sugars that are the main energy source for the body
Carbohydrates are composed of what? aldehydes and keytones w/ many hydroxyl groups added (organic and contain carbon, hydrogen and O2)
Name four classes of saccharides Mono, di, oligo, poly
What defines a mono, di, oligo, and poly saccharide mono is 1 (ie glucose or fructose), di (2 linked), oligo (a few linked), poly (many linked)
Why can't glucose and oligosaccharides be deomonstrated in tissue They are extremely soluble in aqueous solutions
Why can glycogen be demonstrated V. glucose/oligosaccharides It is not soluble in aqueous solutions because it is a poly saccharide
Glycogen is which of the 4 types of saccharides Polysaccharide - it is a repeating disaccharide unit. Is made by the LIVER and is a good control spec.
What are the four polysaccharide groups Neutral, Acid Mucopolysaccharides, Glycoprotein, Glycolipids
what can the neutral polysaccharide contain and what will it stain with and not. contain glucose (ex glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin). Stains POSITIVE w/ PAS, will NOT stain with alcian blue, colloidal iron, mucicarimine
what can the acid mucopolysaccharides contain carboxylated groups, sulfated groups or BOTH ex Hyaluronic acid (carboxylated group); sulfated groups found in aorta and cow cornea, the combo of both "chondroitins" (found in cartilage and bone)
How does the acid mucopolysaccharides stain with PAS? and what is another name for the acid mucos'? will stain PAS negative, called connective tissue mucin because the cells that produce are fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteocytes and mast cells (all non epithelial cells)
what can comprise the glycoproteins can be neutral, carboxylated or sulfated & carboxylated
what are glycoproteins commonly called and why. How does the PAS stain glycoproteins called epithelial mucins because they occur in columnar cells (in "the gut", salivary glands), but some can be in connective tissue (PAS positive but doesn't need to be)
What are glycolipids and how will they stain with PAS and FS LIPID stain cerebrosides and phosphatides *bind fatty residue with glycogen Have Positive PAS and FS LIPID stain
name the 4 acid mucins (also called mucopolysaccharides) Simple non-sulfated, Simple mesenchymal, Complex Sulfated, Complex Connective Tissue
what does the simple non-sulfated acid mucin contain and where is it found contains sialic acid - found in epithelium of gall bladder and intestinal metaplasia of stomach
What are the positive stains for Simple non sulfated acid mucins (and what does it resist) positive for PAS, alcian blue PH 2.5, colloidal iron, metachromatic dyes (stains diff color than itself) **Resists hyluronidaze digestion**
What does simple mesenchymal mucin contain and where is it found contains hyluronic acid (and is digested with hyluronic acid). found in tissue stroma and sarcomas
what stains give positive reaction for Simple mesenchymal mucin. What about negative reaction? Alcian blue 2.5ph, colloidal iron, metachromatic dyes. Has a NEGATIVE reaction for PAS
What are the best stains for the 4 Acid mucin types PAS and Alcian Blue
Complex sulfated mucins are found where and resist what digestion? found in adenocarcinomas, resist hyaluronidase digestion
what are complex sulfated mucins USUALLY positive for? PAS, Alcian Blue PH 1, colloidal iron, mucicarmine and metachromatic stains
where are complex connective tissue mucins found found in tissue stroma, cartilage, and bone (includes chondroitin sulfate, and keratin sulfate)
what are complex connective tissue mucins pos. and neg. for positive for alcian blue at .5 ph, and negative for PAS
Amyloid means and contains means "starch like", contains small amt of carbohydrate but mostly acid mucopolysaccharides *is mostly insoluble fibrous proteins*
Amyloid is typically found where? certain disease conditions called amyloidosis
what is amyloidosis? a group of diseases that deposit insoluble protein filaments in interstitial spaces of blood vessels and other organs (heart, kidney, lung, liver)
what are the two major types of amyloid? plus 1 extra? Primary is AL (amyloid light chain), secondary is AA (amyloid associated), the extra is AB(beta) (found in alzheimers disease)
primary amyloid (AL) deposition occurs how and where deposits of enzymatic altered immunoglobulins Kappa and Lambda *seen with myeloma (plasma cell neoplasm) associated amyloid
Primary Amyloid AL is derived from (AL) amyloid light chain is derived from plasma cells and contain immunoglobulin light chains
secondary amyloid (AA) deposition occurs why usually in response to chronic inflammatory processes (ie TB, osteomyolytis, rheumatoid arthritis)
secondary amyloid AA is comprised of what an enzymatic altered protein made by the liver *is non immunoglobin Vs. primary amyloid which contains immunoglobin*
what are the three stains that amyloid can be stained with Thioflavin T, Crystal Violet, Congo Red (primary method that is used)
Created by: mustangvxd



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