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social

terms only

TermDefinition
Sociological imagination the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual’s life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces.
Social institution a complex group of interdependent positions that, together, perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time; also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people
Verstehen German: understanding. The concept of Verstehen forms the object of inquiry for interpretive sociologyto study how social actors understand their actions and the social world through experience.
Anomie a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; too little social regulation; normlessness.
Positivist sociology a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships (akin to a social physics).
Double consciousness a concept conceived by W. E. B. DuBois to describe the two behavioral scripts, one for moving through the world and the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers, which are constantly maintained by African America
Functionalism the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important (or necessary) function to keep society running.
Conflict theory the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general.
Symbolic interactionism a microlevel theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people’s actions.
Postmodernism a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affi liations.
Social construction an entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetuated as people and social institutions act in accordance with the widely agreedupon formal rules or informal norms of behavior associated with that
Midrange theory a theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function.
Microsociology seeks to understand local interactional contexts; its methods of choice are ethnographic, generally including participant observation and indepth interviews.
Macrosociology generally concerned with social dynamics at a higher level of analysisthat is, across the breadth of a society.
Socialization the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society.
Self the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person.
I one’s sense of agency, action, or power
Me the self as perceived as an object by the “I”; the self as one imagines others perceive one.
Other someone or something outside of oneself.
Generalized other an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settingsregardless of whether we’ve encountered those people or places before.
Resocialization the process by which one’s sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered, often deliberately through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution.
Total institution an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of daytoday life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority.
Status a recognizable social position that an individual occupies.
Role the duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status.
Role strain the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status.
Role conflict the tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses.
Status set all the statuses one holds simultaneously
Ascribed status a status into which one is born; involuntary status.
Achieved status a status into which one enters; voluntary status.
Master status one status within a set that stands out or overrides all others
Gender roles sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as male or female
Symbolic interactionism a microlevel theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people’s actions.
Dramaturgical theory the view (advanced by Erving Goffman) of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets.
Face the esteem in which an individual is held by others.
Ethnomethodology literally “the methods of the people,” this approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a shared social order
Endogamy Within social group
Exogamy Outside group
Monogamy One partner
Polygamy Multiple partners
Polyandry Multiple husbands
Polygyny Multiple wives
hidden curriculum nonacademic and less overt socialization functions of schooling
Education the process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools, both general and specific, are developed.
Social capital the information, knowledge of people, and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or otherwise leverage social networks.
cultural capital symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations.
Stereotype threat when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they fear they may confirm those stereotypes
resource dilution model hypothesis stating that parental resources are finite and that each additional child dilutes them.
dyad group of 2
triad group of 3 or more
tertius gaudens the new third member of a triad who benefits from conflict between the other two members of the group.
Divide et impera the role of a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two actors in the group.
Social deviance any transgression of socially established norms.
Crime the violation of laws enacted by society.
Social cohesion social bonds; how well people relate to each other and get along on a day today basis.
Mechanical or segmental solidarity social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts.
Organic solidarity social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts
Social control those mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals
Formal social sanctions mechanisms of social control by which rules or laws prohibit deviant criminal behavior.
Informal social sanctions the usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership; the unspoken rules of social life.
Social integration how well you are integrated into your social group or community.
Social regulation the number of rules guiding your daily life and, more specifically, what you can reasonably expect from the world on a daytoday basis.
Egoistic suicide suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group.
Altruistic suicide suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration
Anomie a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; too little social regulation.
Anomic suicide suicide that occurs as a result of insufficient social regulation.
Fatalistic suicide suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation.
Strain theory Merton’s theory that deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals.
Conformist individual who accepts both the goals and strategies to achieve them that are considered socially acceptable.
Ritualist individual who rejects socially defined goals but not the means.
Innovator social deviant who accepts socially acceptable goals but rejects socially acceptable means to achieve them.
Retreatist one who rejects both socially acceptable means and goals by completely retreating from, or not participating in, society.
Rebel individual who rejects both traditional goals and traditional means and wants to alter or destroy the social institutions from which he or she is alienated
Labeling theory the belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them, and their reactions to those labels, over time, form the basis of their selfidentity.
Primary deviance the first act of rule breaking that may incur a label of “deviant” and thus influence how people think about and act toward you.
Secondary deviance subsequent acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label and people’s expectations of you.
Stigma a negative social label that not only changes others’ behavior toward a person but also alters that person’s own selfconcept and social identity.
Broken windows theory of deviance theory explaining how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly; specifically, whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts.
Created by: 575784140
 

 



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