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Histo2Exam1MASH 2014

Histo 2 Exam 1 NWHSU

QuestionAnswer
Describe the structure of the most permeable capillary discontinuous sinusoids
How does the cytology of the AV node fibers differ from that of regular atrial muscle fibers? smaller, less gap junctions, less intercalated discs
Describe the structure of the lymphatic capillary. discontinuous epithelium and basal lamina
Three common consequences of atheroma. thrombus formation, impaired blood flow, aneurysm
In addition to cardiac muscle, the myocardium of the atria contain a notable amount of _________ tissue elastic connective
The atrial and ventricular myocardia are separated by the _________ and their only connection is the ______________. cardiac skeleton; AV Bundle
What vessel adjusts the flow of blood to a region? muscular artery
What causes AV delay? the rate of depolarization in the AV node is about 10 times slower than in the SA node
What are the three layers of blood vessels in general from inside out? tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia
Name the type of blood vessel in which the internal elastic lamina is a distinguishing characteristic. muscular artery
Describe the tunica media of the aorta. alternating layers of smooth muscle and fenestrated elastic lamina
Which group of cardiac muscle cells usually has the greatest intrinsic rate of depolarization? -Purkinje fibers = 1.5-4 m/sec --SA Node = 0.3 m/sec --AV Node = 0.01 m/sec
Elastic fibers are particularly prominent in the ____________ of the heart. Atrial Myocardium
In the heart, elastic CT is an especially important component on the _______________. myometrium of the artia
This vessel acts as an auxiliary pump to maintain blood flow during diastole. elastic artery
Name the two most significant tissues which comprise the atrial myocardium. cardiac muscle and elastic CT
What provides an opportunity for lymphocytes and macrophages to remove foreign materials before they get into the blood? lymph nodes
Other than thickness, how does the myocardium of the atria differ from that of the ventricles? much more elastic fibers and less smooth muscle in atrial myocardium
What is the condition where too much fluid is in the pericardial sac, putting pressure on the heart? tamonade
Hormones effecting vascular smooth muscle and Na+ excretion are secreted by ___________ cells of the heart. These hormones are called _____________. atrial myocytes; atriopeptins
What vessels have pores covered by diaphragms? Fennestrated capillaries
What vessel has two layers of smooth muscle? arterioles
Which arteries are the most numerous? muscular arteies
Where would you find purkinje fibers? subendocardium
The lymphatic system is a very ____________ pressure system and accepts very ___________ molecules. low, large
List the three functions of the lymphatic system. --the return of fluids, electrolytes, protein, etc. back to the blood --the addition of lymphocytes and antibodies from the lymph nodes --lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine takes up dietary fat
The epicardium is also known as the ________________. Visceral Pericardium
The purpose of occluding junctions in capillaries is what? to force materials that are going in and out of the capillary to go through the cell, this way the cell may decide which may pass through.
________ (AKA caveola) can be used with either occluding or adhering junctions. transport vessicles
Fenestrated capillaries can alter their ____________ by rapidly changing their ____________. permeability; # of fenestra
List the kinds of capillaries from least to most permeable. --continuous with occluding junctions --continuous with no occluding junctions --continuous with pores (fenestra) --discontinuous and fenestrated
Give two other names for muscular arteries. distributing arteries and medium arteries
What is found outside the largest muscular arteries? external elastic lamina
The largest veins contain vast amounts of _______________. CT in All layers
Blood vessels which supply the walls of blood vessels are called ____________. Vasovasorum
Lymphatic vessels are absent in _____________ and _____________. CNS Bone Marrow
Capillaries in the lymphatic system are ________________. discontinuous
Fluid is moved through the lymphatic system by __________________________ but backflow is prevented by _____________. the action of surrounding muscles; valves
The ________________ cell undergoes zonation in the process of platelet formation. megakaryocyte
The human cardiac skeleton is formed of _______________. dense fibrous CT
Describe the structure of the parietal pericardium. fibrous connective tissue and serous membrane (CT and mesothelium)
What facilitates alveolar expansion during inspiration and prevents alveolar collapse during expiration? pulmonary surfactant
What type of cell is the olfactory receptor cell? These cells live only a short time and are replaced by differentiation from ___________cells. bipolar neuron; basal
What are the two major components of the alveolar wall? elastic tissue and a dense capillary bed
What is the function of the alveolar type I pneumocyte? blood/air barrier
Smooth muscle contributes to the walls of the respiratory tract from the bronchi through the level of the _______ alveolar ducts
Describe the function of the true vocal cord. pseudostratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium
Why is elastic CT important in the lungs? allows for expansion during inspiration, provides recoil during expiration, tethers alveoli indirectly to the lung pleura, also prevents collapse during expiration
In the respiratory tree, hyaline cartilage is found from the level of the trachea through the ___________. bronchioles
In the respiratory tree, elastic CT is found from the level of the trachea through the _____________. alveolus
Clara cells are most numerous in the ____________. bronchioles
Give one possible function of Clara cells. eliminates inhaled toxins and helps lung prevent development of emphysema
What substance reduces alveolar surface tension? surfactant
What is the function of the basal cell of the olfactory mucosa? gives rise to new olfactory receptor cells
Alveolar Type 2 pneumocytes (great alveolar cells) secrete ___________. surfactant
The epithelial lining of the trachea is ____________________. pseudostratified columnar with cilia and goblet cells
The bronchiopulmonary segment is the portion of the lung is supplied by one ___________________. Tertiary bronchus and all its branches
Which chronic obstructive airway disease is characterized by a loss of elastic support for the bronchioles with their subsequent collapseand difficulty during expiration? emphysema
Which obstructive airway disease is a combination of bronchoconstriction and excessive production of mucous? asthma
Which chronic obstructive airway disease is a result of the thickening of bronchial walls and muscle walls and is also a result of an increase in the number and size of mucous glands? chronic bronchitis
The opening of the mouth into the pharynx is the ___________ while the nasal opening is the _______________. oropharynx; nasopharynx
The oropharynx and the pharynx proper are lined by ____________ epithelium whereas the nasopharynx is lined by ____________ epithelium and ___________ epithelium non-keratinizing stratified squamous; stratified squamous; ciliated columnar
The false vocal cord is lined by ______________ epithelium. ciliated columnar
Describe the structure of the olfactory mucosa. basement membrane -> basal cells -> olfactory receptor cells ->sustenacular/supporting cells -> lumen
List the three major cells of the olfactory mucosa. basal, olfactory, and sustenacular cells
The predominant epithelium of the larynx is __________________. stratified squamous
The epithelial lining of the vocal fold is _______________________. stratified squamous
Which lingual papillae are associated with taste buds? fungiform and circumvallate
Which major salivary gland is composed primarily of mucous cells? sublingual gland
The cardiac sphincter is formed by ___________. thickening of muscularis mucosa of the esophagus
The chief cells of the stomach secrete __________ primarily in response to ______________. pepsinogen; gastrin
How does cytology of the parietal cell reflect its function? increased surface area and large numbers of mitochondria
Describe the histology of the hepatic sinusoid. How does this contribute to the function of the liver? discontinuous fenestrated endothelium and BL with Kupper cells and does not rest on the basement membrane; aids in filtration
What is the major function of the gall bladder epithelium? concentrate bile
Gall bladder smooth muscle constricts in response to ____________which is secreted by _______________. pancreozymin/cholesystokinin; parathyroid
What cells of the digestive system secrete: Most of the proteoltic enzymes pancreatic acinar cells
What cells of the digestive system secrete: intrinsic factor parietal cells of the stomach
What cells of the digestive system secrete: bile salts pancreozymen hepatocytes
What cells of the digestive system secrete: pepsinogen chief cells of the stomach
What cells of the digestive system secrete: Lysozyme Paneth Cells
What cells of the digestive system secrete: Most plasma cells Hepatocytes
What cells of the digestive system secrete: HCL Parietal cells of the stomach
What cells of the digestive system secrete: Gastrin Endocrine cells of the stomach (Chromaffin/argentiffin/enterochromaffin)
What cells of the digestive system secrete: Somatostatin Neuroendrocrine cells
What cells of the digestive system secrete: Albumin Hepatocytes
What cells of the digestive system secrete: Pancreozymin and Secretin Endocrine cells in the small intestine
The smooth dome-shaped elevations on the posterior tongue are formed by _______________. lymphoid tissue of the submucosa
Islands of columnar epithelium in Barrett’s esophagus are prone to what? an ulcer resulting in abnormal bleeding
What function is suggested by the cytology of the striate ducts of the submandibular salivary glands? reabsorption of Na+ and secretion of K+
In the hepatocyte, which organelles are the enzymes of detoxification? smooth ER
Terminal digestion of carbohydrates and proteins is accomplished by ____________. enzymes from the glycocalyx of the absorptive cells of the small intestine
Peyer’s patches are characteristic of what organ? ileum
Describe the structure of the hepatic sinusoids. meandering vessels, can be large, discontinuous, associated with phagocytes
Blood from __________ and _____________ enters the hepatic sinusoid hepatic artery; portal vein
Which bacteria are associated with gastric ulcers? helicobactor pylori
Portal hypertension may develop with cirrhosis of the liver. What has gone wrong in the liver to cause this? the normal portal system is obstructed or gone
Secretin causes the secretion of alkaline material from the Brunner’s submucosal glands of the duodenum and also from _____________. bile duct cells and pancreatic duct cells
Which cytologic characteristics of the parietal cell of the stomach reflects its function? high in mitochondria, more plasma membrane, very acidophilic, large amounts of secretory granules and large amounts of sER
What is the function of the lacteal? lymphatic vessels which receives chylomicrons (triglycerides and golgi products)
What is the purpose of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system? two capillary bed system which ensures both releasing and inhibiting factors from the hypothalamus are in high concentration when they reach the adenohypophysis
Give two differences between the mucosae of the large and small intestines. large intestine has no paneth cells, no plica circularis and no villi
Brunner’s glands secrete ______________ and are specific to the _____________. alkaline fluid; duodenum
Esophageal varcies are a potential lethal complication of cirrhosis. Why? distended submucosal blood vessels bulge into lumen and may be eroded by gastric acid
Which major salivary gland is primarily composed of serous acini? parotid gland
The _____________papillae of the tongue are the most numerous and have no taste buds. filform
Chylomicra are formed by _____________cells and are taken up by ______________ (vessels) in the lamina propria. absorptive cells of the small intestine; the lacteal
What are predominantly absorbed by the proximal end of the small intestine? The distal end? triglycerides; B12 and bile salts
In humans, the mixed seromucous salivary gland is the ______________, the serous salivary gland is the ____________ and the mucous salivary gland is the ____________. submandibular; parotid; sublingual
Give two characteristics of cirrhosis of the liver. dead hepatocytes and collapse of normal architecture
In the pancreas acinar cells secrete __________ in response to _______________ and duct cells secrete _____________ in response to ___________________. digestive enzymes; pancreozymin; alkaline fluid; secretin
Which cells are present in both the small and large intestine? absorptive cells, goblet cells, intestinal crypts and lymphoid tissue
The squamous epithelium of the esophagus is protected from exposure to gastric acid by what two things? the arrangement of the esophagogastric junction and the muscular sphincter
The transformation of the lower esophagus from squamous epithelium to a gastric type of epithelium due to acid reflux is known as ___________. Barrett’s esophagus
The breakdown of the protective mechanisms of the stomach resulting in gastric acid killing epithelial cells and lamina propria may result in ________________. gastric ulcer
Name the three most Important diseases (adult) of the large intestine. cancer; diverticular disease; ulcerative colitis
In infants and children the most important disease in the large intestine is ____________. Hirschsprung’s disease
Name the outcomes of liver failure. failure of synthetic functions (proteins like albumin) and failure of detoxification
Give two structural characteristics of the hepatocytes which refects their role in the synthesis and secretion of bile salts. bile caveculae and occluding junctions
In the GI tract, protein cleving enzymes are secreted by ____________. pancreatic acinar and chief cells of the stomach
What are the effects of pancreozymin/cholecystokinin (give the cells and their response)? in the gall bladder it causes constriction of smooth muscle to squeeze out bile and in the pancreas it triggers acinar cells to secrete digestive enzymes
A person is addicted to barbiturates, what cytology of the hepatocytes would reflect this? --increased sER, mitochondria and secretory granules
In addition to enzymes and/or mucous, cells of the salivary gland also secrete ________________. IgA secretory piece and lactoferrin
Esophageal varices is a very dangerous and potentially fatal disease. What condition related to cirrhosis of the liver may cause these varices? portal hypertension
The adenohypophysis develops from _____________ while the neurohypophysis develops from the ________________. Rathke’s pouch; hypothalamus of the diencephalons
What are the major regions of the stomach? cardia, pylorus, fundus, corpus/body
What layer of cells does the stomach not contain? adventitia
The esophagus is about _____ inches long. 10
Where does the esophagus run? from the pharynx thru the diaphragm to the stomach
What is significant about the muscularis mucosa in the esophagus? the upper 1/3 is skeletal muscle; the middle 1/3 is both skeletal and smooth muscle; the lower 1/3 is smooth muscle
List the glands found in the esophagus. esophageal glands proper and esophageal cardiac glands
What are rugae? folds or ridges in the stomach, primarily found in the corpus or body
Give some examples of where the spaces between cells of capillaries are very large. liver; spleen; bone marrow
What are Peyer’s patches? collections of lymphoid tissue
The basic structure of lingual papilla is a core of ___________covered by ________________ epithelium. CT; stratified squamous
Which organs of the GI tract have submucosal glands? duodenum and esophagus
Give signs and symptoms of untreated mellitus. acidic breath due to high ketones, acidosis of blood, high blood sugar, muscle weakness, lethargic, possible coma or unconsciousness
Compare the muscularis externa of the large intestine and the small intestine. small has inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer; large has inner circular with longitudinal arranged in 3 bands called tenia coli
What do each of the following organs contain: small intestine, colon, large intestine. --small intestine  villi, crypts, submucosal glands, paneth cells, goblet cells, Peyer’s patches --colon  submucosal glands, goblet cells, Peyer’s patches --large intestine  gobletcells and crypts
Which areas of the GI tract are lined by stratified epithelium? esophagus, rectum, trachea
How does the cytology of the parietal cell correlate with its function? Lots of mitochondria for energy to secrete HCl against its concentration gradient; more plasma membrane
Describe the structure of the splenic sinusoids. --discontinuous columns of endothelium with discontinuous basal lamina in circumferencial rings
What is the significance of the structure of the splenic sinusoids? highly permeable, thus allowing blood into spleen to be cleaned
Bile is synthesized by the ____________. liver
The most acidophilic cell of the fundic gland is the ____________ cell. parietal
The core of the tongue is composed of __________________. skeletal muscle
Endocrine hormones (affecting vascular smooth muscle and transport of sodium and water in the kidney) are secreted by ___________ cells of the heart. myocardial
Give the stimulus for secretion of pancreatic enzymes. secretine/pancreozymen
Low levels result in both growth and mental retardation. T3 &T4 thyroid hormone
Secreted by neurons of the hypothalamus. antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
Stimulates reabsorption of water in the kidneys. antidiuretic hormone
Produces an increase in blood calcium. parathyroid hormone
Stimulates contraction of the uterine smooth muscle. oxytocin
Inhibits osteoclast function. calcitonin
Stimulates secretion of milk. prolactin
Increases blood sugar. glucagons, epinephrine, cortisol
Secretion is inhibited by somatostatin. growth hormone, insulin, glucagons
Decreases blood potassium. aldosterone
Increases free fatty acids in the blood. cortisol, norepinephrine and epinephrine
Target is myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland. oxytocin
Inhibits ACTH secretion. cortisol
Secreted by the pars intermedia of the hypophysis melanocyte stimulating hormone
Decreases blood osmolarity, blood volume and has neurogenic factors antidiuretic hormone
Stimuli that results in the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone FSH-releasing factor
Excess of this in childhood can result in giantism growth hormone
Secretion of this hormone is uniquely under tonic inhibition prolactin
Secreted by parafollicular cells calcitonin
Rathke’s pouch gives rise to the ______________. adenohypophysis
Give the targets of lutenizing hormone in the male and female. Male=leydig cells; females=corpus luteum
What are fenestrated capillaries? Where are they found? --continuous capillaries with pores allowing more movement; found in renal glomerulus of kidney whose job is excretion
Describe the structure of the splenic sinusoid. What is its functional significance? discontinuous columns of endothelium with discontinuous basal lamina in circumferencial rings; highly permeable allowing blood into spleen to be cleaned
Hormones effecting vascular smooth muscle and Na+ excretion are secreted by _______________cells of the heart. atrial cardiac muscle cells (atrial myocytes)
By what mechanism does aldosterone result in decreased plasma K+? causes kidneys to excrete in the urine
In normal physiology, ADH is secreted in response to _______________. increased osmotic pressure and decreased blood volume
Where does calcitonin come from? parafollicular cells
What cells make and secrete insulin? B cells of pancreatic islets
What specific cells secrete oxytocin? ADH? paraventricular nucleus of neurohypophysis; supraoptic nucleus of the neurohypophysis
Which hormone of the adenohypophysis is the only hormone derived from the pars intermedia? melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
Secretion of growth hormone is controlled by _____________ (hormones) which are products of the _____________(cells) of the ____________. GHrf; GHrif; hypothalamus
What stimulates secretion of parathyroid hormone? decrease in blood Ca++ levels
Give the signs and symptoms of untreated diabetes mellitus. acidosis, ketosis, dehydration, hyperglycemia, tachypnea
Aldosterone is likely to affect its target via the ___________ receptor. mobile
What hormones are secreted from neuorsecretory cells of the respiratory tract? Bombesin and serotonin
Endocrine hormones (which cause relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and loss of water and sodium through the kidney) are secreted by the ____________________ cells of the heart. atrial cardiac muscle
Gastrin is secreted by ______________ cells of the stomach. endocrine
Which cells secrete releasing factors? neurons of the hypothalamus
Under normal conditions, the stimulus for antidiuretic hormone is? decrease in blood volume and increase in osmotic pressure
What structure helps to ensure that the levels of releasing hormone are adequate to stimulate the targets? hypothalmic/hypophyseal portal system
Secretin stimulates the secretion of an alkaline solution from ________________cells. pancreatic duct
Glutocorticoids likely affect their targets via the ____________receptor model. mobile
*By what mechanism does aldosterone result I decreased plasma K+? causes kidneys to excrete it in the urine
Thyroglobulin is hydrolyzed by _____________ enzymes. lysosomal
What are the targets of follicle stimulating hormone? females -> ovarian follicle males -> seratoli cells
What is occurring at the germinal center? plasma cell formation
What affect does somatostatin have on the cells of the adenohypophysis? -inhibitory
Oxytocin is likely to affect its targets via the ____________ receptor model. fixed
Created by: T1NWHSU