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What is the name given to the process of organ formation? Organogenesis
When does organogenesis usually start? In the first trimester of pregnancy
When can gender be determined? Around the 12th week of pregnancy
When is 'it' referred to as an embryo? From conception to the 9th week (LMP)
When is 'it' referred to as a foetus? From the 9th week (LMP) until the rest of the term
How do the lungs develop? Branching morphogenesis
Which germ layers supply most of the alveoli of the lungs? Endoderm and mesoderm
Which germ layer is responsible for neural innervention? Ectoderm
Which germ layer gives rise to musculoskeletal support? Mesoderm
Which longitudinal channel will later become the digestive tract? Primitive gut
Which germ layer does the GI system initially develop from in week 2/3? Endoderm
What does the mesoderm contribute regarding GI system development? Messentry, smooth muscle and blood vessels
What does the ectoderm contribute regarding GI system development? Enteric nervous system
What do the following form? A)Foregut B)Midgut C)Hindgut A)Oral cavity, oesophagus, trachea and stomach B)Small intestine and pancreas C)Colon
Where does somite development occur? Alongside the neural tube, in pairs
When does somite development occur? Starts around day 19 post-fertilisation
How does somite development occur? Develops in succession from anterior to posterior. A new somite pair develops every 90 minutes, and 44 develop in total
What does somite development result in? Produces muscle, and vertebral and rib bones
When does neural tube closure usually occur? Days 23-26 post-LMP
How does the neural tube close? The neural plate (neural ectoderm) rolls up to form the neural tube, with the neural crest forming at the boundary with the ectoderm
Why is neural tube closure important? Closure is important for the development of the brain and spinal cord. Failure to close could lead to conditions such as Exencephaly or Spina Bifida
What does embryonic folding result in? The entire surface being covered with ectoderm
What does the ectoderm later become? The epidermis of the skin
What happens to the mesoderm? The mesoderm splits into two layers; One adhering to the ectoderm, the other to the endoderm. This creates the coelom
When does nervous system development start to occur? 19-21 days post-fertilisation
From which layer does the nervous system develop? The ectoderm
What gives rise to the brain? The neural plate, in the anterior region
What gives rise to the spinal cord? The neural tube along the dorsal region
Which two cavities can the body cavity be divided into? Thoracic cavity and Peritoneal cavity
What separates the Thoracic and Peritoneal cavities? The diaphragm
What does the Thoracic cavity sub-divide into? The Pleural and Pericardial cavities
Through what three ways can birth defects arise? -Genetic (inherited or de novo mutations) -Environmental (exposure to teratogens) -Infections (maternal disease)
How does the ear develop? From placodes (ectodermal thickening visible on surface)
Why is the development of the ear important? For sensory organ formation
How does the inner ear develop? From the Octic placode: visible from week 4, disappears from surface by week 5
When does the embryonic stage of pregnancy occur? The 6 weeks that follow the first 16 days post-fertilisation
How does the shape of the embryo change during the embryonic stage of pregnancy? -The cephalic and caudal ends curve around the yolk sac so that the head and tail are almost touching in a C-shape -At the same time, lateral surfaces of the disc fold around the sides of the yolk sac to form the ventral surface of the embryo
When does limb development occur? External surfaces are visible from early week 4
How do the limbs develop? -Buds project outwards -Patterning is important; need to specify proximal, distal, dorsal, ventral -Forelimb is present first
What shows the precursors of digits? Condensations of cartilage
How do the digits separate? Apoptosis between the digits
When does development of the heart start to occur? Days 22/23 post-fertilisation
Where is development of the heart visible? On the ventral surface
When does the heart start to beat? Around day 45
What do the kidneys develop from? The urogenital ridge
How do the kidneys develop? Branching morphogenesis
What are the 3 stages in kidney development? Pronephros (day 18) Mesonephros (day 24) Metanephros (day 35)
What does the eye develop from? The Optic placode
When does development of the eye occur? Visible from the end of the 4th week
Created by: SandersE