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WVSOM Class of 2012 Cells

what are the functions of the glycocalyx? cellular attachment to extracellular matrix components; binding of antigens and enzymes to the cell surface; facilitates cell-cell recognition; absorption of molecules
what are the 2 types of chromatin in the nucleus? euchromatin, heterochromatin
which chromatin is basophilic and transcriptionally inactive? heterochromatin
which chromatin is lightly stained and is very transcriptionally active? euchromatin
where is the site of noncytosolic protein synthesis? rough endoplasmic reticulum
rER is common in what kind of cells? those that synthesize secretory proteins
sER is most commonly found in what kind of cells? steroid synthesizing cells
sER is involved with which processes? drug detoxification, muscle contraction and relaxation, and synthesis of trig/chol
what are the functions of the golgi process? carbohydrate synthesis, processing of noncytosolic proteins synthesized in the rER, & membrane retrieval, recycling, & redistribution
what are residual bodies? leftover lysosomes
cell-cell adhesions are together at what point? along the side
cell-extracellular matrix adhesions are together at what point? at the base
examples of cell-cell adhesions? cadherins and integrins
what are zonula occludens? site of membrane interdigitation
what are zonula adherens? cell-cell Adhesions; Strongest cell-cell adhesion
how is the zonula adherens stabilized? organization of the actin cytoskeleton into adhesions belts
what are desmosomes? Button-like intercellular “rivets”
what are some “non-classical” cadherins? desmoglein, desmoplakin
another name for desmosomes? Macula adherens
what are gap junctions? channels between cells; allows for mixing ions & small molecules, and are usually gated
what are hemi-desmosomes? sites of localized interaction with ECM; found at the base of cells anchoring them to the underlying connective tissue
how are desmosomes and hemi-desmosomes stabilized? intermediate filaments
what are focal adhesions? sites of localized interaction with ECM; dynamic and constantly undergoing change by linking and releasing actin
what is the cell coat, which is composed of glycoproteins that project from the apical plasma membrane of the epithelia cells to aid in absorption? glycocalyx
what color does the nucleus of a cell appear with H & E stain? blue
chromatin is made of what two things (not the two types of chromatin)? DNA and histones
which chromatin is condensed DNA? heterochromatin
which chromatin is DNA more readily available for transcription? euchromatin
the nucleolus is made from what kind of RNA? what is its function? mRNA; synthesis of ribosomes
what are examples of noncytosolic proteins? secretory, plasma-membrane, and lysosomal proteins
cytoplasm with abundant rER appears what color in H&E stain? basophilic
cells with large amounts of sER may exhibit distinct ____ under LM? eosinophilia
peroxisomes are also called what? microbodies
why do peroxisomes contain peroxides and catalase? oxidative digestion of things like fatty acids
how do mitochondria appear under LM in hepatocytes and neurons? very small, dark dots
residual bodies not exocytosed from the cell can appear as what? lipofuscin pigment
examples of cell inclusion are: carbohydrates (melanosomes and melanin), lipids, crystalline structures and pigments
lipofuscin and hemoglobin breakdown pigmenst are what color? yellowish-brown
what is another name for a tight junction? zonula occludens
how are focal adhesions stabilized? organization of actin cytoskeleton into stress fibers
zonula occludens are mediated by what? occluden
zonula adherens are mediated by what? cadherin
hemi-desmosomes are mediated by what? integrins
focal adhesions are mediated by what? integrins
which structures mediate signal transduction? focal adhesions
what are two nonmembranous organelles? ribosomes, centrioles
which structures are stabilized by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton into adhesions belts? zonula adherens
gap junctions are mediated by what? connexins
Created by: mhassan