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Developmental Defect

WVSOM Class of 2012 Developmental Defects

what is the most sensitive period for teratogenesis? 3-8 weeks
how does situs inversus happen? defective morphogen genes from hensen's node
how does caudaldysgenesis happen? insufficient mesoderm in caudalmost embryo
what is holoprosencephaly? what causes it? deficiency of midline craniofacial structures from disruption of forebrain development; fetal alcohol syndrome
what is the name for when the neural tube fails to close? spinal dysraphism
what are the 4 spina bifidas? occulta, cystica, meningocele, and meningomyelocele
what are the symptoms of meningomyeloceles? incontinence, csf leak, flaccid paralysis, and hydrocephaly
if the neural tube fails to close in brain vesicles, what happens? ancephaly
amniocentesis shows what elevation in defects? alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase
Malformations arising during development, produced by environmental, not genetic, insults are what? developmental defects
disorders present at birth, produced by environmental and/or genetic causes. These can be morphological, behavioral and metabolic: Birth Defects, Congenital Anomalies
malformations produced over a prolonged period of time due to persistent molding forces, e.g. cranial shape change due to decreased amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios): deformation
malformations produced after the initial formation of a normal structure, due to abruptly occurring destructive forces, e.g. amniotic band disruption complexes causing in utero amputation: disruption
morphological anomalies are called what? congenital malformations
what is an extreme example of caudal dysgenesis? sirenomelia
spina bifida occulta is a ___ neural tube defect while spina bifida meningomyelocele is a ____ neural tube defect: closed; open
dysraphism is most common at what points in the neural tube? L5 or S1
Hydrocephaly and neurologic deficit is more common with ____ defects, urinary incontinence with ____ defects anterior; posterior
what is a CSF-filled meningeal sac? cranial meningocele
what is a CSF-filled meningeal sac that contains brain tissue? cranial encephalocele
dizygotic twins are what? monozygotic? fraternal, identical
if dyzygotic blastocysts implant in close proximity, what structures can be fused? chorion, placenta
what is most common scenario for monozygotic twins, that is, when do they split? embryoblast of the blastocyst splits in two
in monozygotic twins, if the embryoblast splits in two, what structures become fused? chorion, placenta
in the case of monozygotic twins, when there is a split in the bilaminar stage just before formation of the primitive streak, what structures are fused? chorion, placenta, amnion
in monozygotic twins, if the split occurs at the 2-cell embryo stage, what structures will be fused? none
when a twin resorbs another twin, the mummified body is known as a what? fetus papyraceus
if the embryoblast or germ disc does not separate completely, what condition develops? conjoined twins
Conjoined twins are most common in what type of pregnancy? monoamniotic
Created by: mhassan