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CNPR Certification

Chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
What is anatomy? The study of the basic structures of the body.
What is physiology? The study of how body structures function.
What is Clinical Pharmacology? The study of the effects and movement of drugs in the human body.
What is pharmacodynamics? Study of what a drug does to the body. Therapeutic effects, their sites of action, side effects, mechanisms of action
What is pharmacokinetics? Study of how a drug is processed in the body, with emphasis on the time required for absorption, duration of action, distribution, and method of excretion. How the body affects the drug.
What is Drug Distribution and Elimination? Drug delivery systems, route of administration, modes of excretion.
What is a drug? Any chemical substance that affects the body and its processes.
Drugs are divided into two categories: 1)Prescription 2)Non Prescription
Every drug has at least 3 names: 1)Chemical Name 2)Generic Name 3)Trade Name
What does the chemical name of a drug describe? The atomic or molecular structure of the drug.
Why are generic names given to drugs? The chemical name is too cumbersome for common use. So an official body assigns a generic name to the drug. Similar drugs have similar endings based on type class.
What is a trade name? Chosen by the pharmaceutical company that manufactures or distributes the drug. Usually used for patented drugs.
What are antihypertensives? Drugs used to treat high blood pressure.
What are antiemetc drugs? Drugs to treat nausea.
What is the FFDCA? Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act.
What is the FFDCA definition of a drug? Any substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease. Or a substance other than food intended to affect the structure or function of the body.
What is a cell membrane? Wall around the cell. Allows or blocks passage in and out of drugs, nutrients, waste, and water.
What are cell membrane receptors? Specific molecules on the cell membrane surface that produce or block biological activity in the presence of specific substances to which they bind.
What is the nucleus? The brain of the cell that regulates all activities. Some cells do not have a nucleus.
What are cytoplasm and protoplasm? The substance inside the outer membrane and the outside of the nucleus.
What is extracellular fluid? Body fluid located between or outside cells. Consists of interstitial and intravascular fluid.
What is interstitial fluid? Fluid in between cells.
What is intravascular fluid? Fluid within the blood such as plasma.
What are tissues? A group of similarly specialized cells that perform the same function.
What are organs? Specialized cells and tissues grouped together to perform a specific body function for a common purpose.
What are the 3 types of Muscle Tissues? 1)Skeletal 2)Smooth 3)Cardiac
What are the 2 types of muscles movements? 1)Voluntary 2)Involuntary
What is Plasma? The liquid portion of the blood that carries proteins and other substances.
What are the 5 Classes of Nutrients? 1)Proteins 2)Fats 3)Carbohydrates 4)Vitamins 5)Minerals
What is a Protein? Made up of chains of amino acids. Essential amino acids must be received from outside the body since the body cannot manufacture all of them.
What is a fat? Stored in special body tissues as a great source of reserve energy. It is broken down into glucose and used for immediate metabolic reactions.
What are vitamins? Substances necessary for growth, development, and normal metabolic processes. Must be taken in from outside the body.
What are minerals? Substances necessary for bodily processes such as balance of body fluids, the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth, and the proper functioning of muscles.
What are the 6 main minerals? 1)Calcium 2)Potassium 3)Iron 4)Sodium 5)Phosphorous 6)Iodine
Fluids, mostly water, make up ____% of the body's weight. 60
What is included in the cardiovascular system? Heart, Blood Vessels, and the blood itself.
What does the cardiovascular system do? It is the body's main transportation system. It provides nutrients, hormones, and removes waste from the cells.
What is included in the respiratory system? Nasal Passages, the trachea, the diaphragm, and the lungs.
What does the respiratory system do? It performs exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.
What is included in the gastrointestinal system? Mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and large intestines.
What does the gastrointestinal system do? Used by the body to acquire the energy and nutrients it needs to sustain itself.
What is included in the nervous system? Brain and spinal cord(central nervous system), and the peripheral nervous system.
What does the nervous system do? Conducts electrical signals throughout the body and allows it to interact properly with its environment.
What is included in the musculoskeletal system? Muscles, the bones, and other minor systems.
What does the musculoskeletal system do? Primarily responsible for the bodys basic frame support and movements as well as its ability to perform physical work.
What is included in the reproductive system? Male: Penis, testes, and seminal fluid Female: Ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina, and mammary glands.
What does the reproductive system do? Manufacture, transmit, and maintain the cells and environment necessary for reproduction.
What does the immune system include? lymph nodes, vessels, and cells.
What does the immune system do? Maintains the integrity of the body by attacking and removing invading foreign substances and microbes. Also helps remove excess fluids from the body.
Pharmacokinetics uses a process called _____ testing to assess the actions of the body on the drug. ADME
What does ADME testing measure? Rate at which the body absorbs the drug, distributes it to the designated organs, metabolizes it into waste material, and then excretes it from the body.
What is toxicity? Refers to the negative or adverse effects of a drug.
What is a therapeutic range? The dosage range of a drug that is safe and produces a beneficial result.
What is absorption? How the drug passes from its site of administration into the blood stream.
What is distribution? How the drug is dispersed among the organs of the body after it is absorbed into the bloodstream, and how much reaches the target organ.
What is metabolism? How the active part of a drug is metabolized into a more water-soluable compound that can be readily excreted by the kidneys.
What is excretion? How the drug is eliminated from the body. Usually by urine or fecal excretion.
What is a drugs selectivity? Its ability to target the intended site.
What is a drugs affinity? Its ability to remain attached to the intended site.
What is a drugs potency? Its ability to optimize its strength.
What is a drugs efficacy? Its effectiveness.
The difference between the usual effective dose and the dose that induces severe or life-threatening side effects is called _____? Margin of safety.
What are the 7 rights of drug administration? 1)Right patient 2)Right drug 3)Right dose 4)Right route 5)Right time 6)Right technique 7)Right documentation
What is the MAR? Medication Administration Record
How quickly and how much of a drug reaches its intended target site of action is called ______? Bioavailability
Drug products are considered ________ when they not only contain the same active ingredients, but also produce virtually the same blood levels over time. Bioequivalent
Bioequivalence ensures _______ ________, which is production of the same medicinal effect. Therapeutic Equivalence
What are the 4 types of slow release? 1)Modified release 2)Controlled release 3)Sustained release 4)Extended Release
How and how long a drug is stored can affect its __________? Bioavailability
What is the average circulation time of blood? 1 minute
What is the main route for drug excretion is the ________? Kidneys
Failure to administer the drug in the correct form results in a ________. Medication Error
What does a Enteric Coating on a pill do? It keeps the drug from dissolving in the stomach so they can dissolve in the intestines.
What does OTC stand for? Over the counter
Drugs that target receptors are classified as ____ or ______ Agonists, Antagonists
_______ regulate the rate of chemical reactions in the body. Enzymes
What is drug to drug duplication? When two drugs with the same effect are taken, their therapeutic effects and their side effects may be intensified.
What is drug to drug opposition? Tow drugs with opposing actions can interact, thereby reducing the effectiveness of one or both.
What is drug to drug alteration? One drug may alter how the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, or excretes another drug.
Between _____% and ___% of hospital admissions in the US are estimated to be for treatment of adverse drug reactions. 3,7
This type of adverse drug reaction involves an exaggeration of the drugs therapeutic effects. Type A (augmented)
These adverse drug reactions result from mechanisms that are not currently understood. Type B (idiosyncratic)
Adverse drug reactions that persist for a long time are Type _____. C (continuing or chronic)
Adverse drug reaction that take some time to develop are type ______. D (delayed)
Adverse drug reactions that occur during drug withdrawl are type ______. E (end of use)
What is the USAN? United States Adopted Name Council.
What does the United States Adopted Name Council do? They assign a new drugs "generic" name.
Who approves a trade name? FDA
Patents grant the company exclusive rights to a drug for ____ years. 20
A generic version of a trade-name drug must differ in ______,_______, and ________. size, shape, and color.
Bioequivalence of different versions of a drug can vary up to ____%, legally. 20
Bioequivalence of different versions of a drug are _____% different on average. And rarely exceed _____% 3.5, 10
What is a drugs API? Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients fall into one of two categories. Chemical (small molecule) and biological (large molecule).
The way in which an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient works in the body is referred to as its _______ ___ _______. Mechanism of Action.
What are excipients? Fillers, dyes, and flavors (inactive ingredients) blended with API.
What is Parenteral drug delivery? intravenous, intra-muscular, or subcutaneous
Excipient: Binder Binders cement the active and inert components of tablets together to maintain cohesive portions.
Excipient: Fillers (diluents) Used to make the drug sufficiently large for easy manufacture and patient consumption.
Excipient: Glidants (flow enhancers) Added to powdered materials used in pill production to aid movement through tableting machinery.
Excipient: Colors Wide variety of dyes and coloring agents approved by FDA. Can cause allergic reactions.
Excipient: Flavors Both natural and synthetic. Can be considered a "Trade Secret."
Excipient: Suspending/Dispersing Agents Maintain a consistent concentration of the active ingredient throughout a drug product.
Excipient: Disintegrants Helps break up tablets in the gastrointestinal tract to ensure full release of the active ingredient.
Excipient: Lubricants Ease the release of tablets form the dies that stamp them during the manufacturing process.
Excipient: Compression Aids Helps pill hold their shape when compressed
Excipient: Sweeteners Extremely common in oral medications, particularly in medicines for children.
Excipient: Printing Inks Biologically safe dyes used for printing information or company logos on the exterior of the tablet or capsules.
Excipient: Film Former/Coatings Protect against physical breakup during storage and undesireable interactions with substances in which drugs come into contact. They can mask bad taste and allow pill to be swallowed eaily.
Vocab: Absorption The process by which a drug disintegrates in the stomas as molecules travel across the epithelial cell membranes lining the stomach and intestines, then reach the filtering system in the liver (Portal System) before reaching the systemic circulation.
Vocab: Adverse reactions Any undesirable effects of a medication.
Vocab: AUC (Area under the Curve) When concentration is used to measure bioavailability, AUC represents the extent of drug absorption or the quantity of drug that appears in the bloodstream following oral administration.
Vocab: BID Twice a day
Vocab: Bioavailability The is the rate and extent to which the active or therapeutic ingredient is absorbed from a drug product and becomes available at the intended site of drug action.
Vocab: Bioequivalence When 2 drugs are provide similar effects with respect to efficacy and safety.
Vocab: Blood Brain Barrier Protective layer of cells surrounding the blood vessels that feed blood to the brain.
Vocab: Cmax Peak plasma concentration on a measuring curve.
Vocab: CNS Central Nervous System
Vocab: CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid
Vocab: Drug-Drug Interaction The physiologically significant effects produced by the interaction of two drugs in the body.
Vocab: Drug-Food Interaction The physiological effects produced by the interaction of food and a given drug.
Vocab: Duration of Action The time interval within which a given dose of a drug is expected to have therapeutic effect.
Vocab: Elimination The process by which a drug or its metabolites are removed from the body.
Vocab: First Pass Effect The metabolizing process in the liver that suppresses the amount of drug that eventually reaches the systemic circulation and the site of action
Vocab: Half-Life of a drug The period of time it takes for a specific amount of drug in the body to be reduced, through the excretion or eliminations process, to exactly one-half of that original amount.
Vocab: Homeostasis A state of constant, consistent, and balanced internal environment in the body. Pleasure or danger take the body out of this state.
Vocab: Lipid-Soluble Ability to dissolve in lipids or fat tissue.
Vocab: Maximum effective dose Highest dose beyond which more a given drug will produce no additional therapeutic effect.
Vocab: Mechanism of Action The process by which a given drug works in the body to achieve its intended therapeutic effect.
Vocab: Minimum Effective Dose The lowest dose of a drug that can be given to a patient to produce any therapeutic effect.
Vocab: Onset of action The time it takes for a drug to start having any intended effect after it is administered.
Vocab: PRN As needed
Vocab: Protein Binding The ability of certain drugs to bind to plasma protein. Used in determining the amount of available drug at the site of action, toxicity, etc.
Vocab: QD Once a day
Vocab: QID Four times a day
Vocab: Side effects The actions of effects of a drug beyond what it is clinically intended to do.
Vocab: STAT Immediately
Vocab: Steady state When a given dose of a drug is being taken at regular intervals, absorption and elimination become fairly constant.
Vocab: Sustained release Drug delivery formulations designed to delay the absorption process so that a drug can be given in fewer daily dosages and improve patient convenience.
Vocab: Titration The process of adjusting drug doses to achieve the maximum positive therapeutic effects while minimizing adverse or side effects.
Vocab: Tmax Time of peak plasma concentration on a measuring curve.
Created by: dgvoss