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What enabled early man to stop moving around & settle in permanent communities? Domestication of animals & farming
Where does the saying "an eye for an eye" come from & what does it mean? Hammurabi's code It happens to you if you do it to them
Cultural diffusion Ideas spread to new people/disperse
2 physical features that would have encouraged ancient people to start settlements nearby Fertile soil near water source
What religion did the ancient Hebrews found & why was it unique at the time? Judaism was polytheistic
The location of all early civilizations in Afro-Eurasia shared what commonality? Settled along rivers
Why were irrigation ditches in ancient Mesopotamia important to agriculture? Allowed farming to flourish & food supply to increase
How was a person assigned to a caste? How could a person join another caste? Based on birth Not permitted to marry out of caste
Which civilization 1st developed gunpowder & silk? Chinese
What regions/civilizations did the Silk Road connect & why was it important? From East Asia (china) to West Europe
What system of government did the ancient Athenians create? Democracy
What system of government created by the ancient Romans did the US imitate? Republic
List personal rights w value today that originated in ancient Rome. Equality before the law & justice systems
Identify causes of the fall of the Roman Empire Attacked by barbarians/military decline
What were the common causes of the fall of Han China & the Roman Empire? Political & economic belief
What was the effect of the decline of the Roman Empire on Western Europe? West Europe fell into dark ages
The medieval ages were also called the dark ages in Western Europe because? West Europe sent into chaos, invaders kept Europe in turmoil, peasants got land for foods/services given to lord/kings
What determined a person's place/status in feudal societies? They were born into their social positions
While European kings & nobles during the Dark Ages were relatively weak under feudalism, what authority could sometimes order kings & nobles to follow its directives? Why? The church pop, because they had their own army & strong influence others by holding heavenly rights
When the Roman Empire was split in half, what NEW empire was created in the eastern portion? Byzantine Empire
How can the Crusades be described as a failure? It didn't free the Holy Land
Where did the Black Death spread, what spread it, & why did it spread so fast? Asia rats with fleas trade using ships
while Muslims, Jews, & Christians have many different religious beliefs, what primary belief do they share? Monotheistic
What products were traded across the trans-Saharan route? Salt & Gold in Africa
3 key achievements associated with the Tang & Song dynasties of China Block printing, gunpowder, compass, arts
2-3 important factors that led to the creation of the Mongol Empire? Collapse of Roman Empire, excellent horsemenship & fierce fighting skills, Ghengis Khan united various tribes
What positive impact did the Mongols have on Western Europe? Gunpowder
Achievements of the Aztecs: Why were the Spanish able to conquer them so easily? Complex numbering system, 365 day calender, exposed smallpox
What engineering achievement's credited to the Incas & was also shared by Rome? Why can you say that the Incas actually deserve more credit due to the geography of the region? Stone roads, because of their superb engineering skills allowed them to build in the steep mountains.
New agricultural technologies during the Middle Ages had waht effect on the population of Western Europe? There was more food allowing population to double
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy? Strategic location on the Mediterranean Sea
How were the writers of the Renaissance influenced by the writers of ancient Greece? They believe in human reason to explain the world
What was the primary method Renaissance ideas were spread from southern Europe to northern Europe? Spread by trade
How was the Renaissance different from the Middle Ages in terms of art, education, & science? Focused on world logic instead of church
What was the impact of the Gutenberg's printing press on the people of Europe? encouraged spread of ideas & literacy increase
Describe waht humanism, humanists, and the humanities are mainly interested. What subject do they not focus on? Secular nonreligious subjects
Explain Martin Luther's issues with the Roman Catholic Church at the time of the Reformation. People used money on sale of indulgences
According to Martin Luther, the only means of achieving salvation was? Only through faith in God
How did King Henry VIII react when the Pope refused to annul his marriage? Henry broke from Catholic Church & turned to Protestantism
How's Christianity in Western Europe BEFORE the Reformation like umpty Dumpty on the wall? How's Christianity in Western Europe AFTER the Reformation like Humpty Dumpty off the wall? Christianity divided
The model of the solar system with the earth revolving around the Sun's known as what theory? Heliocentric
Describe the method invented during the Scientific Revolution? People observe > hypothesis > test experiments
What was the contribution of Robert Boyle to the Scientific Revolution? He conducted experiments on gas at different temperatures
What group of nomadic invaders conquered in Byzantine Empire & its capital Constantinople in 1453? Ottomans
The Ottomans controlled what area of the Mediterranean making them a strong trading empire? Eastern
What 3 continents did the Ottoman Empire eventually control territory on, increasing trade & the spread of ideas? North Africa East Europe Asia
What commonality existed during the Ming dynasty in the early 1400s and the Spanish monarchy in the late 1400s regarding trade? Trade & exploration
During the Ming dynasty, why did China stop investing in overseas naval expeditions? Culture/economy's balance Wanted no outside influence
Identify key technological advances that contributed directly to the start of the Age of Exploration in the 1500s Compass, triangular world
Why did European rulers encourage ocean exploration? Establish colines to develop resources & establish trade
Why Christopher Columbus sail the ocean blue in 1492? To find a new route to India to avoid taxes of Ottoman Empire
Why did millions of native peoples in the Americas die after contact with the Europeans in the 1500s? They weren't immune to Europe diseases
3 foods from the OLD world that were taken to the NEW world as part of the Colombian exchange sugar chickens grains
3 foods from the NEW World that were taken to the OLD World as part of the Colombian Exchange tomatoes pepper squash
What was the impact of the Colombian Exchange on the population & the economy of Western Europe? Their diets improved, it forever altered the economy
A non-food product taken from the OLD to the NEW World as part of both the Columbian Exchange & the "Triangular Trade" also known as the "African Diaspora" was? slaves
Explain divine right and who most supported it? A king was god's deputy on Earth James I & Louis XVL
A person who believes that too much power in the hands of a single person's a bad thing would tend to support waht kind of government in modern times? Democracy
The execution of Charles I & the creation of the Commonwealth of England occured following what conflict? Civil War between king & parliament
Why was the Glorious Revolution different thn most political revolutions? Bloodless
What was common impact of the Magna Carta, & the Glorious Revolution/English Bill of Rights on the power of the monarchy? limited the power of the king
Identify 2 Enlightenment philosophers who supported the right of the people to choose their own government & leaders. Locke, Rousseau
How does a person acquire natural rights or unalienable.inalienable rights? They're born with them
2 major revolutions that were influenced by the Enlightenment American/French Revolutions
Wwhat Enlightenment philosopher promoted the concept of freedom of speech? CoHaire
The Declaration of Independence & Thomas Jefferson were influenced by which Enlightenment philosopher? John Locke
The concept of separation of powers was promoted by what Enlightenment philosopher? Montesquieu