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Application of Standards-Based Curriculum and Instruction

Recommended sequence for phonics skills instruction (p.49) 1-name letters, uppercase and lowercase 2-sounds of letters (short vowels) 3-three-letter words 4-digraphs 5-consonant blends 6-long vowels 7-multisyllabic words
three-letter words (p.49) simplest words for young students to understand (CVC); use short vowel sounds
basic digraphs (p.49) two consonants that produce a sound unlike either of the component letters; ex: sh, ch, th
consonant blends (p.49) combining sounds into a slightly new form; bl, sl, st
long vowel sounds (p.49) 1-one-syllable words like row and mate 2-diphthongs, other irregular verb formations 3-vowels with r or l; car, walk, bird
multisyllabic words (p.49) read just like combinations of one-syllable words; give guided practice before sounding out on own
synthetic phonics instruction (p.49) build words out of sounds; activities that require students to make words out of disparate sounds; ex: write initial letter on board and have students pronounce it
analytic phonics instruction (p.49) break words down into component sounds; break words apart into discrete sounds
initial consonant, digraph, and blend cards (p.50) synthetic phonics; T gives cards to students and writes number of common rimes on board, students tape cards where they combine with a rime to form a complete word
digraph, letter, and blend cards (p.50) synthetic phonics; T gives cards to students to create short words, each S has several cards, many vowels included; then make multisyllabic words
underlining (p.50) analytic phonics; give short text, S underline all appearances of a given letter or digraph; read out loud to show how letter is used in each different case
repeated consonant sound (p.50) analytic phonics; T writes several sentences on board, each contains same consonant sound; underline words that contain consonant sound; read underlined words and; identify sound words have in common; write sound next to sentence
word sort (p.51) analytic phonics; S given cards on which short words are printed; organize cards according to some criterion
decoding (p.51) converting written words into sounds
encoding (p.51) putting sounds together to make a written word
encoding assessments (p.51) spelling test; transcribe spoken sentences; notice t not d is being used
decoding assessments (p.51) pronounce words they read; more difficult to administer to large class, use nonsense words
reading aloud (p.52) read sentences, short passages, stories; Informal Reading Inventory is one on one
reliability (p.52) consistency between scores from different administrations of assessment
validity (p.52) degree to which test measures what it was intended to measure
formal assessment (p.52) objective results norm-referenced: score compared with peers; percentile grade-equivalent score: score is of a grade level
informal assessment (p.53) teacher's understanding of S strengths and weaknesses observations, collecting info of ability, gauge S progress
theoretical orientation (p.53) set of assumptions and beliefs that prescribe goals and expectations for students
phonics approach (p.53) relationship btwn sound and comprehension; basic units to more complex; language units smaller than word level
skills/balanced approach (p.53) set of tools to make sense of simple texts; large vocabulary of sight words; less priority on phonics; recognize root, prefix, suffix, configuration, or context
whole language approach (p.54) specific functions of language; quality children's literature; communication skills, dialogues and role-plays; create own stories; teaching older children and adults
graphophonemic cueing systems (p.54) T concentrates on explicating grapho-phoneme-morpheme relationships to speed word recognition; similarities btwn written and spoken forms of a sound
semantic/syntactic cueing (p.54) ask student to predict meaning of word based on syntax and grammar clues
Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation (p.54) oral test; T reads 22 words aloud and S states component sounds in order; familiar one-syllable words
testing sound blending (p.55) read words slowly, one phoneme at a time, and ask student to say word at regular speed
testing sound deletion, isolation, matching, and substitution (p.55) separate exams for beginning, medial, and end phonemes ex: sound matching must include 20 cases in which phonemes are at the beginning of the words 20 in the middle, and 20 at the end
emergent literacy model (p.55) children have a natural tendency towards language learning; constantly exposed to concepts of print, reading, and oral language, and therefore do not need a great deal of explicit instruction
language acquisition model (p.55) students have a predisposition to become literate, but disagree about influence of direct explicit instruction; solidify S natural understanding of language and literacy; metacognition
reading readiness model (p.55) opposite to emergent literacy model; direct instruction of reading skills; S will remain illiterate unless given explicit instruction
basic concepts of print (p.56) Marie M. Clay; 1-meaning of print 2-direction of text 3-letter, word, and sentence representation 4-book orientation (features of a book)
letter recognition (p.57) identification of the letter in both uppercase and lowercase forms
alphabetic principle (p.57) specific sounds are consistently associated with specific letters; terrible for English
reading aloud (p.58) easiest way to solidify printo concepts
sound matching skills (p.58) identification of identical phonemes; which two words contain same sound
sound isolation skills (p.58) identification of component sounds in a word
sound blending skills (p.59) combination of disparate phonemes to create a word
sound substitution skills (p.59) transfer of different phonemes into a given position in a word
sound deletion skills (p.59) identification of what results when a phoneme is removed from a given word
sound segmentation skills (p.60) identification of all the component phonemes in a word; most difficult task in phonemic awareness
promoting phonemic awareness (p.60) rhyme, songs, alliteration, assonance
Literal comprehension (p.60) ability to understand explicit elements of the text; comprehension of author's direct message
Four components skills in literal comprehension (p.60) 1-identify main idea 2-identify important details in text 3-identify sequence of events 4-identify causal relationships
Inferential comprehension (p.60) ability to understand implicit elements of the text; same skills as literal comprehension but rely on perception of implied ideas and events
Evaluating comprehension (p.61) ability to consider text as a whole and to make judgments about it
Three component skills in evaluating comprehension (p.61) 1-recognize author's bias 2-detect propaganda (info helping or harming a particular group) 3-distinguish btwn fact and opinion
Syntax (p.61) order of words in a sentence
Uninflected language (p.61) grammatical use of words is not denoted by ending; must be in a particular order to make senseex: English
Independent reading (p.62) self-reliant; always be at grade level
self-monitoring (p.62) check for understanding: paraphrase main ideas in own words
taking notes (p.63) key ideas and questions
class discussion (p.63) articulate ideas of text and listen to reactions of classmates solidify understanding
using graphics (p.63) pictures, semantic maps, and Venn diagrams
SQ3R (p.63) survey, question, read, recite, and review
KWL charts (p.64) Know, Want, Learned
QAR systems (p.64) question-answer relationships
CLOZE tests (p.64) "closure" tests to determine whether students will be able to understand a given text; 40% correct can be used successfully
Read-alouds (p.64) guided oral presentaion of a story, with pauses at key points for questioning and discussion; listening comprehension is foundation of reading comprehension development
Methods of text-based discussion (p.64) enhance reading comprehension; ex: instructional conversations, questions for author, think-pair-share exercises; Socratic dialogue: probes S knowledge and tries to make S evaluate assumptions and judgements
Letter recognition (p.65) lead S slowly through alphabet song while pointing to each letter as it is sung; use mnemonic or memory aid
Alphabet books (p.65) Letters and pictures; "A is for apple"
Concepts About Print (p.65) CAP; Marie M. Clay; test book with 10 pages, some upside down, oriented incorrectly, or jumbled print; student identifies cover, title, author's name, starting word of book, count letters in word and words in sentence; asked how to resolve incorrectness
Problems with print concepts (p.66) not all languages adhere to alphabetic principle
Fluency and reading (p.66) fluency, word analysis skills, vocab, academic language, background knowledge, and comprehension are all related; fluency -> comprehension; automaticity theory
Automaticity theory (p.66) fluency is directly responsible for reading comprehension improvement
Three indicators of reading fluency (p.66) accuracy, rate, and prosody
Accuracy (p.66) the correct decoding and recognition of words
Rate (p.66) the speed at which words are recognized correctly
Automaticity (p.66) combination of exceptional accuracy and a rapid rate of reading
Prosody (p.66) the dramatic and artful reading style that improves attention and understanding of the listener;applying appropriate stresses or emphases, varying pitch and intonation, and pausing at appropriate times
Fluency disruption (p.67) lack of familiarity with vocab, weak word analysis skills, lack of background knowledge or familiarity with complicated syntactic structures, encounter with text with seldom-used, multisyllabic content words
Repeated reading (p.67) teacher or students read same text aloud two or more times in a row; systematic and explicit instruction is very important
Choral reading (p.67) Class reads text aloud in unison; slowly and led by teacher
Dramatic reading (p.67) act out narrative described in text; be familiar with text first; class participation
Reading with a recording (p.67) individual activity; read silently with headphones
Silent reading (p.67) good for independent reading, but can skip over words they don't understand
Reading aloud (p.67) forces students to confront every word in the text and to try pronouncing it at least; leads to automaticity
Informal reading inventory (p.67) IRI; most common versions of informal assessment; vary by student ability
Tests in IRI (p.68) word recognition list, graded reading passage, reading interest survey, print concepts test, phonemic awareness test, phonics test, structural analysis test, CLOZE test for content-area reading, vocab test, spelling test
Purpose of IRI (p.68) establish student's independent, instructional, and frustration reading levels
Independent reading level (p.68) understands and can pronounce 95% of words in text and answers 90% of grade-level reading comprehension questions correctly; don't need help from teacher or classmates
Instructional reading level (p.68) understands and can pronounce 90% of words in text and answers at least 60% of grade-level reading comprehension questions; will need some help
Protocol for performing IRI (p.68) students may have comprehension skills that surpass their vocab; should be given opportunity to demonstrate understanding in ways other than language; ex: draw pictures
Frustration reading level (p.68) student cannot understand or pronounce at least 90% of words and answer at least 60% of grade-level reading comprehension questions; not made to read at this level without assistance; prolonged exposure is bad for self-esteem and development of literacy
Assessing components of fluency (p.68) Holistic; Read grade-level text aloud; Accuracy: calculate # of words read correctly as portion of total words read; Rate: per-minute basis by timing the student as he reads Prosody: read narrative with expression, intonation, phrasing, etc.
Holistic methods (p.69) dramatic or choral readings; familiar and unfamiliar grade-level texts
Sight vocabulary (p.69) assessed formally or informally; sight: read immediately without hesitation alone and in a sentence
Teaching multisyllabic words (p.69) begin with those formed with common prefix or suffix; teach common morphemes and affixes
Root words (p.69) bases from which complex words are developed
Affixes (p.69) prefixes and suffixes
Prefix (p.69) beginning attached to a root word
Suffix (p.69) ending attached to a root word
Inflectional ending (p.69) suffix that alters meaning of the word
Contractions (p.69) abbreviated combinations of two words
Teaching affixes (p.70) 1-correspondence btwn letters and sounds 2-introduce common affixes in isolation 3-examples in words 4-examples in sentences 5-word web
Syllabic analysis (p.70) compound words, break down into syllables
Natural order hypothesis (p.70) Krashen; typical order of linguistic acquisition
Development of written communication (p.71) one of the last elements of literacy to develop; be patient; listening and speaking helps develop rhythms and intonations of language
Writing activities that improve reading comprehension (p.71) summarizing, outlining, and responding
Summarizing (p.71) brief recapitulation of main points or events in a text; orally or written
Outlining (p.71) organization of main points or events in a text; main points distinguished from details
Responding (p.71) immediate description of how text made reader feel; questions from text or experiences from life
Importance of writing (p.71) strong relationship btwn orthographic knowledge and word analysis; students who practice writing out long words are more likely to learn basics of structural and syllabic analysis
Dialogue journal (p.71) student makes entry and receives written response from peer or teacher; conversation for questions, experiences, and trading information
Double-entry journal (p.71) divide page in half and write down different types of info on either side
Reader response journal (p.71) describe emotional and intellectual reactions to a text
Personal journal (p.71) record personal feelings and thoughts; only read by teacher
Four stages of composition (p.72) 1-Prewriting 2-Drafting 3-Revising/editing 4-Final draft
Created by: hlywakai
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