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Culture (p.28) comprehensive style of living developed in a society and maintained from generation to generation; everything learned by a member of a particular society; manifested in traditions, rituals, language, social norms, technology, and economic structures
Material culture (p.28) set of all the physical objects which the society either created or assigned a cultural meaning; ex: books,jewelry, buildings, furniture, natural areas
Nonmaterial culture (p.28) a society's customs, beliefs, political structures, languages, and ways of using material objects; more difficult to change than material culture
Cultural cooperation (p.28) an agreement btwn two parties to work together
Cultural accommodation (p.28) an agreement btwn two conflicting cultures to acknowledge but ignore their differences and try to work together toward common goals, instead; ex: Israel and Iraq
Cultural assimilation (p.29) process where individuals are absorbed into a particular society after having been members of a different one; voluntary or involuntary
Cultural values (p.29) highest ideals of a culture; ex: freedom and equality in the US
Cultural sanctions (p.29) any rewards or consequences given to an individual or group to pupursue or renounce a certain course of behavior; positive or negative
Cultural norms (p.29) specific rules regulating behavior in a culture
Formal norms (p.30) written law, norms that are most important and for which violators should be punished, much more consistent among various societies than informal norms; ex: prohibition of murder, forced payment of taxes, sanctity of marriage
Informal norms (p.30) unwritten codes of conduct, less consistent among various societies than informal norms; ex: prohibition of spitting in public, encouragement of deference to women
Social markers (p.30) any part of behavior that indicates the identity, character, or way of understanding of a particular group of people; ex: laws, folkways, traditions; Laws: explicit and enforced by gov; Folkways: norms that are habitual or traditional in society
Cultural pluralism (p.30) multiple distinct cultures exist within the same society after a process of accommodation
Subcultures (p.30) smaller cultures within a large culture; set of norms and values different from larger society to which they are a member; ex: hippies or punk rockers
Reference groups (p.30) groups to which individuals aspire and compare themselves and against which one evaluates one's own qualities; ex: purchasing a yacht because want to seem rich
Dominant culture (p.30) group whose norms, values, and behavior patterns are forced on the rest of the society
Ethnocentrism (p.30) tendency to view one's own cultural patterns as superior and to judge all others only as they relate to one's own; ex: Holocaust
Cultural relativism (p.31) any particular part of a given culture can only be understood in relation to the rest of the culture and as a product of its context; reaction to Western ethnocentrism; makes judgement impossible
Progress (p.31) social and technological progress is inevitable
Cultural lag (p.31) a change in one part of society is not immediately answered by corresponding changes in the other parts; ex: new technology brings rapid progress and religious institutions do not adjust practices to incorporate it
Diffusion (p.31) process by which technological, political, and social innovations spread from one society to another; accelerated in pluralist societies that are accustomed to a healthy internal debate
Acculturation (p.31) extensive borrowing by one group of cultural traits from another group; exchange of cultural traits btwn two cultures that are in close contact for a long period of time; incorporating new traits without altering original culture
Syncretism (p.31) conscious adopting of cultural elements of a dominant group by a subordinate group
Culture shock (p.32) feeling of disorientation that a person may feel when they encounter cultural values, norms, or practices that are contrary to their own;
Four phases of culture shock (p.32) honeymoon (perceived as good), shock (disorientation), negotiation (labors to make it acceptable), acceptance (+/- are absorbed and reconciled)
Convergent cultural evolution (p.32) different cultures develop similar cultural traits because they live in similar ennvironments
Cultural determinism (p.32) assertion that the potential for variation in human societies is unlimited, and that cultural forces can shape human nature into almost any form
Cultural gatekeepers (p.32) people of a society who permit or forbid the introduction of new elements of a culture into their society; have control over the means by which ideas are distributed and decide which ideas are in society; ex: radio, media
Cultural universals (p.33) elements of culture that are found in virtually every society; ex: sports, cooking, courtship, dancing, family, games, language, music, religion
Cultural pluralism (p.33) several distinct cultures thrive alongside one another; important in ELL classroom - share cultures
Intragroup differences (p.33) exist within a particular cultural or linguistic community
Intergroup differences (p.33) exist between members of distinct cultural and linguistic communities
Instruction for immigrants (p.33) moved to US during lifetime; more difficult time adjusting to Amer culture, parents unfamiliar with culture; spend more time in communication with them, work on basic Amer academic skills like punctuality, taking turns, etc.
Instruction for children of migrants (p.34) here for work, often illegal; parents reticent to interact with a teacher; far below grade level, unfamiliar with school rituals, from small communities and shy
Instruction for refugees (p.34) escape from religious, political, or other persecution; feel isolated; disorientation, traumatized, psychological issues; most fragile classes of students
Instruction for ELLs born in US (p.34) should be easiest to teach but often grow up in communities with no English; can be relied on as sources for other students; can become bored, give alternate activities;
Teacher's cultural background (p.34) has influence on instruction: adopt assumptions and prejudices common to culture, cultural bias; teacher's culture is as important as the students' cultures
Nonverbal communication (p.35) proxemics (distance btwn interlocutors), posture, gestures, eye contact; body language
Turn-taking habits (p.35) differs according to culture: elbowing their way forward rather than waiting their turn
Promoting cooperation btwn students from different backgrounds (p.35) set up activities that require students from different cultures to cooperate; lead activities that emphasize similarities btwn cultures
Multiculturalism (p.35) set of values and norms that suggest that different races in a pluralistic society should learn to understand and appreciate the differences btwn them, rather than seeking to impose one style of life upon another
Social role (p.36) a person's particular niche within society
Role performance (p.36) the way people holding a particular role actually behave, as opposed to the way they are expected to behave as holders of that role
Impression management (p.36) one's conscious manipulation of one's role performance; successful role management: an individual has accurate understand of role as well as expectations society has for him
Studied nonobservance (p.36) sociological term for when members of a society ignore lapses in one another's role performance in the interest of preserving harmony within society
Role set (p.36) full group of roles associated with any particular status; ex: college professor is a mentor, expert, friend, friend, and colleague
Role strain (p.36) difficulty an individual may have in meeting social obligations of a role
Role exit (p.36) process of leaving a role that formerly had been integral to the individual's personality
Role-taking (p.36) process whereby an individual imagines himself in the role of another and tries then to understand the meaning of what the other is expressing; empathy
Socialization (p.36) process through which individuals born into a society gradually become participating members of that society
Gender socialization (p.37) individual learns about various gender roles in society and comes to take one; treatment of boys vs. girls in parenting, media, toys, etc.
Class socialization (p.37) Fundamental differences in social classes Middle: responsibility, self-control, curiosity Working: manners, neatness, honesty, obedience Higher: self-direction and obeying internal standards as opposed to conformity and obeying external standards
Primary socialization (p.37) Period in which an infant acquires the rudiments of language; family; born into a particular social status and will absorb a particular set of values, attitudes, and beliefs
Secondary socialization (p.37) Individual is trained to join a particular social group; outside family unit; ex: friends, school, media
Anticipatory socialization (p.38) individual alters beliefs or norms because of an expected socialization process he is about to undergo; ex: college graduate who adopts lifestyle of business community before getting a job
Desocialization (p.38) casting off one version of self and one set of values and resocialization into another set of values and norms
Internalization of norms (p.38) members of a society accept the norms of that society as correct to the point that they no longer need to think of them explicitly
Differential socialization (p.38) way in which different members of same society may develop markedly different traits, depending on what role their society intends for them to assume later in life; occurs in 2 ways: horizontal or vertical
Horizontal socialization (p.38) fundamental difference in socialization; ex: different requirements that society has for doctors and teachers
Vertical socialization (p.38) differences caused by varying social status; ex: socialization of wealthy compared to poor
Attachments (p.38) bonds formed btwn individual members of a society; ex: love btwn family members or friends
Investments (p.38) material and emotional costs that a person expends in order to make his place in a society and hopefully secure the future rewards of participation in that soicety
Involvements (p.38) amount of time a person spends engaged in nondeviant activities
Beliefs (p.38) a person's ideas about how members of their society should behave
Family (p.39) basic unit of society; varies by culture; function: nurture and socialize the young
Nuclear family (p.39) one adult couple (male and female) and their children
Extended family (p.39) more than one adult couple; ex: parents, brothers and sisters of couple
Patrilineality (p.39) person inherits title and property from father's side of the family; more common
Matrilineality (p.39) things are inherited from mother's side; transfer property to male heirs of a woman
Endogamy (p.39) practice of forcing someone to marry within his own group
Exogamy (p.39) practice of marrying outside the group
Polygamy (p.39) any marital group that consists of one man or woman and his or her multiple spouses
Polyandry (p.39) one wife and two or more husbands
Polygyny (p.39) one man and two or more wives
Applying cultural knowledge (p.40) concept of education, many not used to thinking creatively or offering opinions; avoid putting students on the spot first weeks of class; used to disorganized school structure; need instruction on taking notes and raising hand
degree of cultural congruence extent to which the culture of the student overlaps with the culture of the school; high isn't always good
Cultural values in the classroom (p.40) all students need cognitive and linguistic education as well as psycho-social and affective education; professional and vocational skills; helps students develop their own values based on family, religious group, and peers
Promoting cultural diversity (p.40) T remains sensitive to the cultural values of all students; many students have a negative predisposition toward authority figures; need to maintain high expectations for students
Structural considerations related to a multicultural classroom (p.41) aggressive tracking programs, mixed at random, categorized by testing, evaluations, school curriculum; many alienate, others help
Respect for diversity (p.41) need to indicate their respect for the cultural heritage and the values of every student in the class; treat S as individuals, make effort to learn cultures and values; identify idiosyncratic learning styles; family visits; find T strengths and weaknesses
multicultural education (p.41) specific program of curricula and instructional techniques designed to be inclusive of all racial, ethnic, religious, and linguistic backgrounds
Five dimensions of multicultural education (p.42) 1-content integration (content related to sim & diff btwn cultures 2-knowledge construction process (S form ideas/opinions) 3-attention to prejudiced reactions 4-equity pedagogy, level playing field 5-school culture & social structure empower all S
Hidden curriculum (p.42) a set of informal and implicit rules that a school teaches children in order to help them succeed both academically and socially; rules to survive outside the family in a larger organization
Conservative multiculturalism (p.42) Kincheloe and Steinberg claim it makes assumptions that are detrimental to students; ex: minorities are impoverished or culturally deprived, emphasize standardized testing that reinforces Eurocentric norms, status quo is equitable and not changed
Liberal multiculturalism (p.42) Kincheloe and Steinberg claim it is a well-intentioned but ultimately damaging attempt to help minorities; assume that all people are same, racial inequality is due to lack of opportunity; all people are responsible for themselves; level playing field
Pluralist multiculturalism (p.43) Kincheloe and Steinberg claim it damages students; assumes diversity has an intrinsic value; full curriculum covers cultures and prejudices; ignores differences of class; students self-segregate; differences in cultures discussed more than similarities
Critical multiculturalism (p.43) Kincheloe and Steinberg promote it; similarities and differences is a component of instruction related to social, institutional, and economic prejudices; justice is available but not even; differences must be explicitly discussed; white dominance exists
Created by: hlywakai
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