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Language Acquisition, Linguistics, and Comparisons

Stages of first-language acquisition (p.5) 5 stages: Babbling, one-word, two-word, telegraphic, and later multiword stages
Babbling stage (p.5) 6-8mo, child makes repetitive patterns of sound with his mouth
One-word stage (p.5) AKA one-morpheme, one-unit, or holophrastic stage; 9-18mo, basic word stems and single open-class words
Two-word stage (p.5) 18-24mo, miniature sentences with simple semantic relations
Telegraphic stage (p.5) AKA early multiword or multimorpheme stage, 24-30mo, expresses sentence structures with lexical rather than functional or grammatical morphemes
Later multiword stage (p.5) 30mo+, characteristic grammatical or functional structures of the primary language emerge and are incorporated
Behaviorist model (p.5) B.F. Skinner; individuals learn language as a direct response to stimuli; correct responses to stimuli are reinforced and perpetuated
Nativist model (p.5) Noam Chomsky; born with universal grammar which is used as a template for language acquisition; "language acquisition device"
Language acquisition device (p.5) enables the acquisition of the linguistic principles of other languages
Sociocultural theory (p.6) Vygotsky; learning begins as a result of interpersonal communication and is then internalized as intrapersonal; "zone of proximal development"
Zone of proximal development (p.6) Difference between what a person knows and what he could know if given a bit of assistance from someone else
Scaffolding (p.6) Process of giving temporary aid to facilitate learning; includes modeling, providing cues, and encouraging the person
Ecological model (p.6) Bronfenbrenner; four nested levels: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem
Microsystem (p.6) child's immediate environment
Mesosystem (p.6) interactions btwn components of the microsystem
Exosystem (p.6) more general elements of child's environment
Macrosystem (p.6) overarching environmental influences
Steven Pinker (p.6) One of the most prominent living theorists on human language acquisition; agreed with Noam Chomsky that humans are born with innate capacity for learning language; added that capacity is result of evolution; communication increased odds of survival
Jim Cummins (p.6) One of the most prominent living theorists on human language acquisition; coined terms BICS and CALP
BICS and CALP (p.6,8) Two types of fluency BICS - Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (informal/social); acquired 6-24mo of language study CALP - Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (classroom); acquired 5-7yrs
Cognitive Model (p.6) Piaget; develop linguistic skills in order to control environment; four stages
Stages of cognitive model (p.6) Four stages: sensorimotor intelligence, preoperational thought, concrete operations, formal operations Three phases: assimilation, accommodation, equilibrium
Sensorimotor intelligence (p.6) 0-2yrs; learns to physically handle objects of external world
Preoperational thought (p.6) 2-7yrs; improves physically and begins to think conceptually
Concrete operations (p.6) 7-11yrs; develops logical thinking skills
Formal operations (p.6) 11-15yrs; begins to think abstractly and can develop mental hypotheses
Assimilation phase (p.6) child uses known word to describe new object or concept until corrected
Accommodation phase (p.6) child learns to correct own errors of linguistic identification
Equilibrium phase (p.6) child uses right word to describe the object
Acquisition-learning model (p.6) Acquisition - subconscious process by which vocabulary and basic rules of grammar are slowly and steadily absorbed (native language) Learning - conscious study and knowledge of vocab and rules of grammar (fluency)
Input hypothesis (p.7) Stephen Krashen; need to be given info slightly above ability level in language; continue to raise level; need to understand majority
Monitor hypothesis (p.7) Krashen? explains how learning grammatical rules affects LA; when an individual learns rules of grammar, able to monitor consciously discourse he hears in the future; encouraged to refine and polish speech; extroverts vs introverts
Sociocognitive approach (p.7) true competence is demonstrated in ability to express oneself in different social contexts; emphasizes conversation in different social contexts
Natural order hypothesis (p.7) Krashen? LA follows predictable patterns; certain grammatical structures will almost always be acquired before others, regardless of age; instruction order is not same as natural order
Affective filter hypothesis (p.8) emotional factors contribute to acquisition, esp. self-confidence, anxiety, and motivation
Relationship btwn primary language academic success and English (p9) Very high; see book
Verbal/linguistic students (p.9) reading, learning about language, speaking, writing, manipulating words in puzzles; "traditional" approach to language instructruction
Logical/mathematical students (p.9) solving problems with numbers, experiments, calculations, hypothetical questions, data
Kinesthetic students (p.9) exercise, move around classroom for concentration, hands-on activities
Visual/spacial students (p.9) learn with eyes, maps, charts, drawings, illustrations
Musical students (p.9) singing, instruments, rhythmic games, listening to music, songs, musical mnemonics
Interpersonal students (p.9) groups, mediate disputes, excellent judges of moods, communicate with peers, interpret social cues and gestures of English speakers
Intrapersonal students (p.9) introverted, work by themselves, set own goals, think deeply on a particular subject, not good at thinking on their feet, pen-pals
Naturalistic students (p.9) outdoors, sensitive to small differences, explore language for natural phenomena, English journal
Language variation (p.10) general rules, but no such thing as a permanent, infallible standard language; constant variation
Dialect (p.10) version of a language that is used by a particular group of people; indicated by idiosyncratic vocabulary
Sociolect (p.10) Social class
Idiolect (p.10) particular speech of an indidvidual; created from influence of regional and class dialects
Register (p.10) form of language that is appropriate to a given situation; context
Slang (p.10) any nonstandard form of a language; ephemeral (does not last for very long)
Development of phonics knowledge (3 phases) (p.11) logographic, analytic, orthographic
Logographic phase (p.11) "word-picture;" able to identity familiar words by sight
Analytic phase (p.11) components of words; words that sound alike often have a similar appearance; most intense period of phonics development
Orthographic phase (p.11) acquired almost all of the tools required to sound out familiar and unfamiliar words; know sounds of letters and read most common words automatically
Spelling development (four stages) (p.11) pre-phonetic, phonetic, transitional, and conventional
Pre-phonetic stage (p.12) incomplete understand of relationship btwn sounds and letters; logographic phase of phonics
Phonetic stage (p.12) use appropriate letters for sounds of a word; use one letter represent a complex sound that requires 2 or more letters, write letters upside down or backwards; small sight vocabulary; misspell words with silent vowels
Transitional stage (p.12) solid understanding of correspondence btwn letters and sounds; easy to understand written message; basic sight vocabulary
Conventional stage (p.12) near-perfect spelling; massive sight vocabulary; intuitive sense of spelling
Phonology (p.13) the way a language sounds
Phoneme (p.13) smallest distinguishable unit of sound that can hold meaning; ex: /k/
Morphology (p.13) system by which words are constructed out of letters
Morpheme (p.13) smallest meaningful unit of a morphological system; ex: s
Syntax (p.13) basic structure of the sentences; basic set of linguistic rules that must be followed in order for linguistic expressions to be understood
Grammar (p.13) set of rules that must be followed in order to attain a certain, somewhat arbitrary standard of acceptable expression
Phonetics (p.13) study of sounds made during human speech; deals with real, measurable sounds
Articulary phonetics (p.13) focuses on precise positions and movements of speech organs
Acoustic phonetics (p.13) focuses on properties of sound waves and their reception by inner ear
Auditory phonetics (p.13) focuses on process by which brain forms perceptual representation of phonetic input
Semantics (p.13) meanings of language's words; explore denotations and connotations
Denotation (p.13) the thing or set of things to which a word refers
Connotation (p.14) set of judgements and references that accompany it
Pragmatics (p.14) system by which language is used in social interactions
Phonemic awareness (p.14, 15) the understanding that words are made up of individual speech sounds; measred by 6 tasks: sound matching, sound isolation, sound blending, sound substitution, sound deletion, and sound segmentation
Phonics (p.14) the direct correspondence between letters and sounds
Grapheme (p.14) illustrative series of letters; ex: the hard c or k could be represented as the c in cold or the k in kilogram
Consonants (p.15) formed by a motion that somehow blocks air
Vowels (p.15) formed by the vibration of air moving through the voice box and mouth
Consonant blends (p.15) combination of 2 or more consonants into a single sound; ex: st, dr, gl
Diphthong (p.15) a single but shifting sound made by the combination of two or more vowels; ex: boil
Digraphs (p.15) a group of 2 or more letters that create a sound different from the individual sounds of the letters; ex: sh, ph, ch
Onset (p.15) the sound that initiates a syllable
Rime (p.15) vowel and any consonants after the vowel
Beginning, end, and medial phonemes (p.15) initial, middles, and end phonemes; ex: bully = /b/, /u/ & /l/, /y/
Transfer of literary competence (p.16) positive transfers of knowledge in phonemic awareness, reading phonics, word recognition strategies, and cognates; biggest obstacle is lack of English vocabulary and background knowledge
Transition point (2 points) (p.16) a shift in the relationship of the two languages to one another 1 - students who have received formal instruction in L1 begin formal reading and content-area instruction in English 2 - redesignation; students receive all instruction in English
Metacognitive processes (p.16) ability to self-critique comprehension and analysis; predict, organize, and relate info in a text to their own lives; obstacle is applying L1 patterns incorrectly to L2
Dell Hymes (p.17) sociolinguist; concerned with interactions between language, society, and cultural context; SPEAKING mnemonic
SPEAKING mnemonic: Essential characteristics of discourse (p.17) Setting and Scene, Participants, Ends (goals/intentions), Act sequence (structure of linguistic interaction), Key (gestures/inflections that influence tone/mood), Instrumentalities (methods/conventions of speech); Norms, Genre
Basil Bernstein (p.17) Distinguished btwn restricted code and elaborated code
Restricted code (p.17) Used by people who have a similar cultural background or know each other well
Elaborated code (p.17) Used by people who are unfamiliar with one another or with one another's culture; requires more explicit context and verbiage
Sheltered English approach (p.17) Similar to language immersion; comprehensible input; all information should be understandable to the students; student interaction; student background knowledge and experience
Components of Sheltered English approach (p.17) hands-on activities, modeling, demonstrations, maps, globes, timelines, bulletin boards, pictures, graphs, computers with interactive software
Concepts of Sheltered English approach (p.17) relationship between language development and conceptual development; mastery of language must increase along with mastery of concepts
Making input comprehensible in Sheltered English approach (p.18) explicitly define tricky vocabulary; manipulatives, graphical depictions; content-area instruction in primary language of students; training in sheltered English and SDAIE (specially designed academic instruction in English) methods and strategies
Mathematics instruction in Sheltered English approach (p.18) most difficult; unique vocabulary; develop a conceptual understanding of math; make connections btwn concrete, semi-concrete, and abstract expressions of new concepts
Sheltered English vs. ESL (p.18) Sheltered English: Focus on mastery of content area certified in content area & ESL training ESL: Focus on development of English skills only endorsed in ESL BOTH: focus on terminology of content areas, emphasize need to teach metacognitive strategies
Submersion programs (p.18) Sink or swim; student drowns in new information; provide very little structured support for English acquisition; high rate of failure; students blamed for failure to acquire English rapidly
Transitional ESL education (p.19) common model of ESL; taught in both L1 and L2 according to proficiency; raises level of English used in classroom; more beneficial; Krashen's input hypothesis
Primary language instruction (p.19) Content-area material is in L1; majority are native Spanish speakers; prevent students from falling behind grade level during ELA; increase amount of language
English language development (p.19) common method; graduated program of improvement in ELA; summative assessment at beginning to differentiate proficiency levels; focus addressing learning styles; large amount of practice time; ungraded opportunities; T is fluent in both languages
SDAIE (p.19) Specially designed academic instruction in English; student must have at least intermediate fluency in English; course material in L1 but provided access to English versions; motivation-driven; goals are set; T fluent in both languages
Characteristics of ESL program (p.20) content taught in L1; separate instruction for English; intensive & take up majority of school day; dangers: prevent learning content material, difficult to transfer L2 to core curriculum
Dual immersion programs (p.20) groups of students with different L1 are placed together and encouraged to learn each other's native tongue; promotes true bilingualism and healthy respect for another culture; L1 improves from explaining to others; uncommon but becoming popular
Four basic orientations for teaching ESL (p.20) structural/linguistic, cognitive, affective/motivational, and functional/communicative
Structural/linguistic approach (p.20) comparisons btwn structures of different languages; isolate grammatical and syntactic elements in each langauge and teach students in prescribed sequence
Cognitive approach (p.20) objectives that enable student to make generalizations about hte rules of English; emphasis on individual learning
Affective/motivational approach (p.20) predispositions of student enhance or inhibit learning; diminish anxiety associated with learning by increasing identification with native English speakers
Functional/communicative approach (p.20) selecting language structures on basis of utility in achieving a communicative purpose; focus on transmission and reception of speech
Audiolingual method ESL (p.21) repetition of structural patterns; overlearn material; prevent student errors; reinforce correct expression; grammar taught inductively (informed of rules after intuitively learned proper form); new material presented in dialogue; losing popularity
Total physical response approach ESL (p.21) psychomotor systems to inculcate vocab and syntactic forms; not required to produce until ready; T gradually increases complexity; kinesthetic learning style; T gives command and does it, T&S do command, S does command, S gives command to other S
Communicative strategy ESL (p.21) comprehension of linguistic principles always comes before production of speech or writing; goal to create meaningful communication; specific vocabulary and expressions; practice dialogue
Grammar-translation approach ESL (p.21) taught in L1; very little active use of English; vocab taught in list format; detailed explanation of grammar rules; complex texts; little attention to spoken forms; no instruction in pronunciation; translate sentences
Direct approach ESL (p.22) grammar-translation approach + more L2; dialogue incorporating modern conversational style in English; translation given with questions based on dialogue; grammar rules learned through induction (generalize from practice)
Reading approach ESL (p.22) for those who aren't living in English community & reading is most important skill to master 2 emphases: improve reading ability and establish current events & historical knowledge of English countries; limited grammar instruction; no pronunciation
Community language learning approach ESL (p.22) lower affective filter & gradually introduce S to Eng linguistic community; S considered a client and T is trained in counseling. 5 stages: S dependent on T, S has contact with Eng speakers, S speaks directly to group, S speaks freely, S refines skills
Functional-notional approach ESL (p.22) strictly organized syllabus of language; language divided into discrete units of analysis (usually social context); S forced to express himself in Eng; every social situation; exponent, code, and code-switching
Exponent (p.23) statement that is appropriate to a given function, situation, and topic
Code (p.23) shared language of a community of speakers
Code-switching (p.23) process by which individuals shift tone or formality of speech in order to convey hierarchy, bonding, or some other interpersonal relation
5 Categories of discourse of functional-notion approach (p.23) Functional-notional approach: 5 major functional categories of discourse: personal, interpersonal, directive, referential, and imaginative
Personal function (p.23) expressing and elaborating one's own thoughts, ideas, or feelings
Interpersonal function (p.23) establish and maintain positive social and professional relationships, whether by exchanging basic pleasantries or organizing social relations; ex: apologies or invitations
Directive function (p.23) change actions of others; ex: giving instructions, requesting permission, asking directions
Referential function (p.23) discuss abstract concepts
Imaginative function (p.23) express creativity and artistic expression; ex: fictional dialogue, creative solutions to concrete problems
Marie M. Clay (p.23) originator of the Reading Recovery movement
Reading Recovery movement (p.23) Marie M. Clay; an effective method of accelerating the progress of struggling readers; continuous and specific assessment to diagnose reading problems early on; program 12-20 weeks
Sharon Taberski written popular books about personal relatinships btwn teachers and new readers
Priscilla Vail (p.23) expert on dyslexia and on the assessment of dyslexic children; advocates a whole-language approach to teaching dyslexics and other students with special needs
Marilyn Jager Adams (p.23) established basic criteria for early reading success and helped to create voice recognition software for developing readers
5 basic kinds of intentional listening (p.23) appreciative, therapeutic, discriminative, comprehensive, and critical
Listening for comprehension (p.23) most familiar form of listening; ex: lecture, informative, persuasive speeches, obtain info; depends on attention to organization and structure of message
Detached, intentional listening (p.24) ideal listener: detaching or decentering - considers message on its own terms rather than in context of listener's experience and emotions; gives a fair hearing; open mind
RRA technique (p.24) Review, Relate, Anticipate; 3 steps of active listening
Spoken message (p.24) 3 basic areas: main ideas, organization, and supporting evidence
Listener assessment (p.24) factors that contribute to speaker's message: situation (physical/interpersonal setting: formal/informal), occasion, physical environment, personal characteristics, personal presentation
Listener analysis (p.25) 3 fundamental factors: ideas, organization, and support
Critical listening (p.25) most active form of audience behavior; organizing and interpreting info in a speech; evaluating arguments or ideas, weighing evidence, thinking of possible problems with speech; need detachment
Discriminative listening (p.25) focuses on aspects of message that are implied rather than spoken directly; pay attention to sound of voice, body language, and implicit argument
Speech topic (p.26) each point and piece of supporting material essential; clear and explicit reason to include things; evidence supports what it's intended to support; points are made in proper order
Faulty attribution of causation (p.26) most common error of logic; speaker assumes that just because one thing followed another, the second was caused by the first; provide detailed substantiation for any assertions of causation
Circular reasoning (p.26) common logical error in speeches; assumptions at beginning of argument depend on conclusion of argument being true
Contradictory argument (p.26) speaker introduces info that directly contradicts main argument
Social context (p.26) set of relationships btwn listener and speaker, and btwn members of audience themselves; important in speeches
Communication rules (p.27) Q/A period, presentation, humor, what's appropriate
Created by: hlywakai
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